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Systematic review of the links between human resource management practices and performance. In recent years human resource management HRM has been seen as an important factor in the successful realisation of organisational change programmes. The UK NHS is undergoing substantial organisational change and there is a need to establish which human resource HR initiatives may be most effective.
To assess the results from a wide-ranging series of systematic reviews of the evidence on HRM and performance. The second part considers evidence for the impact of HRM practices on intermediate outcomes, which can impact on final outcomes, such as organisational performance or patient care.
The following databases were searched: Broad categories of HRM interventions and intermediate outcomes were generated: The quality criteria used to select papers incorporated a longitudinal study design filter to provide evidence of the causal direction of relationships between HRM and relevant outcomes.
Single HRM practices were considered. Within the health-specific literature, focus was on the impact of HRM on patient outcomes.
Information is presented on the reliability of measures in each of the intermediate outcome areas. Work design practices that enhance employee autonomy and control influenced a number of outcomes and there was consistent evidence for the positive impact of increased job control on employee outcomes, such as job satisfaction, absence and health. In health literature in particular, employee involvement through quality improvement teams resulted in improved patient outcomes.
Findings were positive for the impact of training on the intended outcomes of the initiatives. Support for the impact of performance management practices was apparent, in particular feedback on performance outcomes and the use of participative goal setting. Strong associations were found among all intermediate outcomes, and the relationship between most intermediate behaviours and outcomes were significant.
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Limited evidence was available on the use of HRM and on the implementation of policy. Also, the specific practices studied within each HRM category differ so there was little evidence to show whether similar practices have the same effects in health and non-health settings.
Some potentially effective practices for both health and non-health areas were identified, and HRM methods could be used to support change processes within the NHS; the findings relating to work organisation are particularly promising with regard to changes in methods of service delivery. Using training to support the implementation of change is highlighted. However, future multilevel studies that embrace the individual, team and organisational level are needed.
Studies should look into interventions aimed at improving HR outcomes and performance, and allow for pre- and post-intervention measurement of practices and outcomes.
Background Knowledge was gathered on occupational demands and health effects of two occupations in the construction industry, bricklayers and supervisors, in order to design a job-specific workers’ health surveillance WHS for construction workers.
Results A total of 60 articles were included. Evidence was found for the following demands for bricklayers: Bricklayers are at increased risk of lung cancer, low back pain, complaints of arms and legs and getting injuries. Among construction supervisors are walking and standing common physically demanding activities. Psychosocial demands with evidence for supervisors were mental demands, workload, time pressure, working long hours, and social-organizational factors.
Supervisors are at increased risk of lung cancer and injuries. Conclusions For bricklayers evidence was found for physical demands and risk on low back pain and complaints of arms and legs, for construction supervisors on psychosocial demands.
Both occupations are at increased risk of lung cancer and injuries.
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Job-specific demands and health effects should be incorporated in WHS for construction workers. C Wiley-Liss, Inc. Demerouti, Evangelia Kawakami, Norito. Work-family Spillover among Japanese Dual-earner Couples: A Large Community-based Study.
Community-based study; Dual-earner couples; Gender; Psychological distress; Work-family negative spillover; Work-family positive spillover. A Large Community-based Study: To examine the effects of multiple types of work-family spillover work-to-family negative spillover, WFNS; family-to-work negative spillover, FWNS; and work-family onderneend spillover, WFPS on psychological distress among Japanese dual-earner couples with preschool children.
A hierarchical multiple alegt analysis was conducted by entering demographic characteristics gender, age, age of the youngest child, and job contract in step 1, job demands and resources in step 2, family demands and resources in step 3, work-family spillover in step 4, and three two-way interactions between types of work-family spillover and gender in the final step. Both WFNS and FWNS were positively related to psychological distress after controlling for demographic characteristics and domain specific variables i.
No significant interaction effect was observed between WFPS and gender. In this study of Japanese dual-earner couples with preschool children, work-family negative spillover had a stronger relationship with psychological distress een positive spillover.
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Gender had a moderating effect on the relationship between negative spillover and psychological distress. J Occup Health ; Collegial relationships at work have become more important now that organizations increasingly use team-based work processes. Collegiality is also facing new challenges, however: This study seeks aletr explain the effect of employees’ family demands on collegiality and evaluates whether the use of flexible work arrangements improves or impedes collegial behaviour.
Moreover, we aim to investigate collegial behaviour as an exchange process between co-workers, and therefore also take family demands and the use of flexible work arrangements by co-workers into account as predictors of employee collegiality.
Based on a sample of employees from 30 organizations, the results show that when used by the employee and co-workers, flexitime decreases collegiality. Collegiality is decreased when the employee has young children, but increased when co-workers have older children. The implications of these findings for HR practices are discussed. Is family-to-work interference related to co-workers’ work outcomes?
Previous studies have convincingly shown that employees’ family lives can affect their work outcomes. We investigate whether family-to-work interference FWI experienced by the employee also affects the work outcomes of a co-worker. We predict that the employees FWI has an effect on the co-worker’s outcomes through the crossover of positive and negative work attitudes. Using a sample of co-worker dyads, we found that the employee’s FWI had a positive relationship with the co-worker’s sickness absence through the crossover of feelings of burnout.
Similarly, employee FWI was positively related to co-worker turnover intention through the crossover of reduced work engagement. The results show that family matters at work, affecting not only employee but also co-worker work outcomes. C Elsevier Inc.
The clustering of health-related occupational kndernemend among contemporary wage-earners. Belgium; Emotional problems; Latent class cluster analysis; Musculoskeletal complaints; Occupational stress; Wage-earners.
In this study, it is investigated whether a typology can be imposed upon a sample of wage-earners, based on their exposure to a broad number of occupational stressors: Also associations between this sn and aleet of emotional problems EP and musculoskeletal complaints MC are tested. Logistic regression and a latent class cluster analysis are performed on a representative sample of 10, Flemish Belgian employees. Five clusters are revealed: These clusters are showing a clear socioeconomic distribution and distinct associations with EP and MCwith the ohigh stress clustero being the most problematic.
Health-damaging occupational stress clusters are prevalent at both higher and lower socioeconomic positions. This is suggesting a complex relationship between occupational stressors and socioeconomic health variations.
Not all job demands are equal: Differentiating job hindrances and job challenges in the Job Demands-Resources model. Ondsrnemend study aimed to integrate the differentiation between two types of job demands, as made in previous studies, in the Job-Demands Resources JD-R model. Specifically, this study aimed to examine empirically whether the differentiation between job hindrances and job challenges, next to the category of job resources, accounts for the unexpected positive relationships between particular types of job demands e.
Further, structural equation modelling confirmed the hypotheses that job hindrances akert positively with exhaustion i. Job resources displayed the reversed pattern of relations. Job challenges were positively related to vigour. Rather unexpectedly, they were unrelated to exhaustion. Based on these findings, we discuss the importance of the differentiation between different types of job demands in the JD-R model for both theory and practice.
Shimazu, Akihito Bakker, Arnold B. Demerouti, Evangelia Peeters, Maria C. Work-family Conflict in Japan: Home demands; Job demands; Psychological distress; Spillover; Structural equation modeling; Work-family conflict. In this study the questionnaire’s reliability and validity are investigated. Methods The PFH questionnaire is comprised of questions, distributed over 33 scales, pertaining to the client’s psychosocial and physical work limitations.
The PFH data of respondents were analyzed: Internal consistency Ondernmend alpha for the scales ondernemenx established. The test-retest reliability was examined for the data of 52 recipients of a disability pension who filled out the PFH twice within an interval of 1 month. Validation was established by taking the nature of the limitations as a criterion: To this end, the respondents were divided into groups distinguished on the ondfrnemend of self-classification, as well as classification on the basis of disease codes given by insurance and occupational health physicians: The scale scores of these groups were compared and tested using analyses-of-variance and discriminant analyses.
Analyses-of-variance demonstrated significant differences between the scores of the mental, physical and healthy groups on most of the expected scales. These results were found both in groups defined by self-classification as well as in groups based on disease codes. Furthermore, limitations due to specific types of complaints low back pain, fatigue, concentration problems or diagnosed disorders musculoskeletal disorders, reactive disorders, endogenous disorders were clearly reflected in the scores of the related scales of the PFH.
Conclusion The psychometric properties of the PFH with respect to reliability and validity were satisfactory. The PFH would appear to be an appropriate instrument for systematically measuring functional pndernemend in subjects on sick leave and ojdernemend those receiving disability pensions, and could be used as a starting point in a disability ondernemenv procedure. When does nursing burnout begin? An onderemend of the fatigue experience of Australian nursing students. Aim Investigation of chronic maladaptive fatigue evolution among a large group of Australian Bachelor of Nursing BN ondernemenr students.
Background The training of Australian nurses has changed from a salaried, ‘apprenticeship’ structure usually including accommodation to a University-based fee paying degree.