Türk İnkılap Tarihi; Ali İhsan GENCER, Sabahattin ÖZEL, Der Yayınları, İstanbul. Supporting. Course. Book. 1. Nutuk, C.I-II-III, (M. Kemal ATATÜRK). 2. et Şahin “Nutuk” Gazi Mustafa Kemal Paşa “Türk İnkılâp Tarihi” Dr. Ali İhsan Gencer, Dr. Sabahattin Özel “Türk inkılâp Tarihi” Prof. Dr. Hamza Eroğlu. Atatürk İlkeleri ve İnkılap. Tarihi I. Atatürk’s Principles and History of Turkish Ali İhsan Gencer-Sabahattin Özel, Türk İnkılap Tarihi, İstanbul:Der Yayınları,
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Skip to main content. Log Traihi Sign Up. Changes in the Training of History Teachers in Hungary Tense Times follow the Training Reform Upheaval Khodnev History Teacher Education in Russia Reform of History Teacher Education in Switzerland History and History Education in Canada Teaching History Didactics in Australia Reflections of yesterday to face, map and bridge Diversity today and tomorrow Lost in Polarization of Historical Culture Demircioglu The purpose of this study is to describe history teacher education and history edu- cation in Turkish society.
With this in mind, history education and history teacher education will be explained from a historical perspective. Significance of History in Turkish Society The history of history education in public schools in Turkish society goes back to the 19th century. InSultan declared an educational act which required that history be taught as a school subject in primary and secondary schools throughout the Ottoman Empire.
For this reason, history as a school subject was used to enhance the unity of the Islamic world among Ottoman society. The Ottoman Empire faced significant problems during the second period of the 19th century due to military defeats that led to the loss of territories. This meant that the Muslim population of the Empire who used to live outside Anatolia, espe- cially Muslims in the Balkans and Caucasus, became immigrants and moved to Anatolia, which was the main territory of the Empire.
Beside this, the Ottoman Empire lost the great majority of its territories in the Balkans after the Balkan Wars at the beginning of the 20th century, and many civilian Muslim Turks were killed. The purposes and content of history education were re- shaped in the light of nationalist history, especially in Beside this, topics re- garding general history and civilization were introduced into the history curriculum in this year.
First of all, the main cities of Turkey were occupied by British, French, Italian, Russian and Greek troops, and many civilians were killed by non-Muslim armed bands. Secondly, Turks started the War of Independence inand in this period nationalism increased in Turkish society. History Education in the Era of Ataturk Kemal Ataturk wanted to set up a strong, modern and secular nation-state, and he believed that history was one of the important instruments in creating it.
For this reason, it was believed that Turkish history should be researched scientifically. All the mentioned factors, which emerged in a Turkish history thesis written dur- ing the s, showed why history and history education were important to Kemal Ataturk.
According to the thesis, Turkey was one of the most important nations in the world and contributed significantly to world civilization. Furthermore, it was believed that the history of the Turks should be researched as far back as the estab- lishment of the first Turkish state in central Asia, which was the first homeland of the Turks.
Furthermore, Turkish historians should indicate that the Turks estab- lished one of the greatest and oldest civilizations. History textbooks were also given attention in the s in the Turkish Republic. Turkey of the nationalist idea in the early s. The pace at which activities regarding history textbook writing and creating a na- tional history developed in Turkey accelerated after In this year, Ataturk got information about a geography textbook, wherein Turks were mentioned as a sec- ond-class peoples when compared with Europeans.
He required historians to re- view all history textbooks used in the Turkish education system and to write new ones, dedicated by the thesis of Turkish history. Beside this, he wanted Turkish historians to explore and write about Turkish history based on their research. This Turkish history thesis was one of the important elements con- tributing to a national identity in Turkish society.
And another important step was taken inwhen the Turkish History Society was established, and given the role of organizing and encouraging historical research and studies of history educa- tion.
History Education in Turkey after There were important changes made to history education after Ataturk died in As a consequence, the content of ttarihi education changed, and topics regarding the history of Greeks and Romans inklp included in the Turkish history curriculum.
This development was criticized by conservative parts of Turkish society. History education was further questioned after World War II, and the main criti- cism was that history education was not pragmatic and did not provide skills that students could use in their daily lives. For example, the field was thaught not to teach problem-solving and critical-thinking skills to students. As a result of this, some research on what kinds of skills history education should provide was carried out, especially in England, leading to the emergence of new skills which students could use.
These studies affected Turkey, and the history curriculum was renewed in Nevertheless, the majority bencer history teachers did not implement this curriculum, and taught history in a traditional way. Social studies lessons have been in service instead of national history lessons in the upper levels of primary schools since History education as a separate iysan was not given attention in Turkey until the s.
According to some academic historians, the attitude was that if someone knows history well, then he or she can teach history in schools. Beyond this, these historians did not have enough information about what history education aoi, and how to teach history lessons in an active way. Another deficiency in history education was a lack of research on history class- rooms: Most literature on this field was translated from other languages.
The first important meeting about history education in Turkey was held by the Philosophy Society inand was a turning point for this field. It is interesting that the con- ference was held by the Philosophy Society, and not the Turkish History Society.
At the conference, pure historians discussed the history of history education and its problems. Although important issues were discussed, however, the findings of this conference were not translated into the Turkish education system. Turkish history textbooks were on the agenda of some Turkish historians in the early s. A conference focused on history textbooks was held by Dokuz Eylul University in in Izmir. Important issues were discussed, and papers regarding history education and history textbooks presented at this conference made history education meaningful in the eyes of professional historians and society.
This con- ference also accelerated research on history education in Turkey. Although some important developments did take place in the field of history education in the s, then, there were not enough researchers who knew how to conduct educa- tional research and solve the problems of history education in schools. The lack of researchers who knew how to conduct educational research in their field such as history education, geography education and literature education came onto the agenda of the Turkish Higher Education Council.
These research assistants completed their studies during the late s and early s. They returned to their universities in the early s, and went on to make important contributions to history education. These researchers conducted research on different aspects of history education in Turkey. An important body of literature therefore came into being in this field in Turkey; academics and postgraduate stu- dents presented their research conclusions to solve the problems of history educa- tion in Turkish universities.
The results of these studies were crucial in increasing 9 Demircioglu note 7 Turkey the quality of history education in Turkey. At this point, however, it should be noted some of these studies have methodological problems.
History is a compulsory subject in Turkish high schools. For this reason, history teachers are still important figures in transmitting the knowledge of the past and of Turkish culture in the eyes of the majority of society in Turkey.
The history teacher education system will be explained in the following section. History Teacher Education System in Turkey Although the origins of teacher education are reputed to go back to the reign of Sultan Mehmetthere are not enough reliable resources to confirm this claim. Almost all teacher education institutions were governed and organized by the Min- istry of Education.
The military coup in in Turkey affected the teacher education system. Ac- cording to the military, the teacher education system was far from satisfactory be- cause of the poor quality of traditional teacher education programs and teacher educators. This led to the establishment of separate, autonomous schools of educa- tion located within universities.
Türk İnkılap Tarihi
Although important decisions regarding the teacher education system were taken in the s and early s, the teacher education system still faced problems. In Turkey, all teacher education, both at primary and secondary levels, is embedded in university programs. All history teacher education programs from to were conducted by history teacher education departments in education faculties.
If we examine the curriculum of these history teacher education departments from toit appears that the great majority of courses were on history, and his- tory teacher candidates were being educated like historians. Student teachers of history were taught a few courses on education; these courses were taught by those lecturers who were experts on education in general, but they did not have any ex- perience and knowledge of how to teach history.
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University of Ulster Press; Another main reason for this reform was to adopt developments in teacher education that had taken place throughout the world and within the European Union. During this period, three different programs were designed to educate history teacher-students. khsan
First, history teacher-students were given comprehensive courses on the three main areas in education faculties over a five-year span.
History teacher-students were given a non-thesis master degree at the end of these five years. Second, history teacher-students were required to spend 3.
Those students who graduated from the history departments of arts faculties, whose courses took 4 years, had the chance of enrolling in 1. Beside this, undergradu- ates of archeology, history of art or political science programs were also given the right to enter 5.
Beside this, pure historians history departments of art faculties criticized this reform, too, because they think that historical knowledge is essential in history education and history teacher-students do not need extra information. Turkish Higher Education Council required this staff to study history education rather than history. According to Turkish Higher Education Council, staff of education faculties should carry out research on how to teach in their field.
This situation was criticized by pure historians because they believed that someone who knew history well, taught history well, which is a debatable is- sue in Turkey.
History teacher-students could gain qualified teacher status through non-thesis, his- tory teacher education programs from toand were given education through both faculty- and school-based studies. The courses that history teacher candidates were given in education faculties dealt with pedagogy and teaching his- tory.
There were different courses about pedagogy and school experience, and the curriculum organization of history teacher education departments cf. There were two main courses focused on in- 14 Ibid. Turkey service training in teaching practice schools. The first course was on teaching ex- perience, and history teacher-students taruhi required to observe teaching activities, teaching, teachers, pupils and management of the school environment in teaching practice schools.