EPİK TİYATRO: : Bertolt Brecht: Books. Title, Epik Tiyatro Kültür Dizisi. Author, Bertolt Brecht. Translated by, Kâmuran Şipal. Publisher, Cem Yayınevi, ISBN, X, Ozdemir Nutku is the author of Bertolt Brecht ve Epik Tiyatro ( avg rating, 0 ratings, 0 reviews).

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It is very significant to learn and study about the elements and characteristics of epic theatre. Brecht introduces his art of the drama as non-Aristotelian.

There are fixed and solid rules in Aristotelian drama, for instance it starts with introduction after that rising action starts then it reaches to climax and falling action starts but Brecht uses another technique in his epic theatre.

He gives important to telling the story rather than identification of audience. Brecht by his epic theatre, tries to change the function of art.


Unlike bourgeois, Brecht is more free to brcht his thoughts to the art spectator. Brecht writes for intellectual workers and he seems to be a treater to all classes rather than poorer. It is true that he was grew up in a bourgeois society and the society which he lives there was bourgeois trade morality.

Brecht was a good observer and he saw the challenges of proletarian people in his town. Epic theatre is a kind of figure in which he reflects his ideas very well. Epic theatre can be investigated in three concepts. They are the ideology, mental activity and staging of epic theatre. He used Korschian Marxism in his aesthetic theory and in tiytaro plays meticulously Weber His fame in left wing led him to live fifteen years of his life in exile with the fear of Nazis.

He placed his bedtolt and political ideas in his artworks that have revolutionary aims. Since, Brecht adopted a Marxist world-view for his lifetime, his dramaturgy theory was about the problems of proletariat. He aimed to refer to the political, social and economic views epuk Marxism in his plays.

According to him, the ideal of showing the truth which is behind the apparent cannot be achieved with the bourgeois realism and we need a theatre that would rule out this illusion. He used many techniques like alienation effect to actualize his theory and these techniques are connected with dialectical materialism. Epic theatre theory does not approach people, bertoly and incidents as they are finished and completed, instead it shows those elements in their process of formation Epik tiyatro.

But his social activist theatre wants to make its audience to change their world in their real lives Cash Brecht treated the social problems in his plays and other works, by this way in the context of Marxist influence, epic theatre focused on the economical rendition of life with activating its audience and making them to think that they can change and be changed. Another issue that epic theatre is concerned with, is the didactic quality of theatre.

Brecht thought and theorized epic bedtolt as a kind of didactic theatre theory. Unlike Bsrtolt theatre which has only diverting and purging effects, his theory contains instructive and informative quiddities as well.

Since, there were more conspicuous social, economic and politic problems in modern world, he took didactic theatre as a fundamental belief, therefore highlighted and used its instructional advantages to awake and bring desperate people who have been overwhelmed with authorities down to earth.

He states this crisply in the book Epik Tiyatro: Besides, Brecht explains the development process of tlyatro play: Theatre had begun to function in a didactic manner. Oil, inflation, war, social conflict, family, religion, wheat, meat market etc. Chorus was illuminating the audience about lowdown of problems that they did not tuyatro, films were presenting incidents from all corners of the world with making use of montage techniques and projector epil piling up statistic materials in front of eepik audience.


It was being seen which is fair behavior and which is not. Some people were getting on the scene, some of them were aware of what they were doing and yet some not.

Politik tiyatro

Thus, theatre was becoming the field of occupation for philosophers; but these philosophers were the ones who wished not only to explain the world but also change it Furthermore, Brecht strengthens his theory about didactic role of theatre with the idea examples from age of enlightenment that later on influenced his director friend Erwin Piscator who was creator of the Political theatre genre.

It is a theatre which criticizes, investigates and changes. Brecht states that in order to realize this theatre bertilt have to efface the audience-character identification or sympathy which hypnotize the audience Nutku Brecht enucleates the essentiality to use sciences while creating a literary work, he argues that without searching and knowing certain sciences about the subject of related work, an artist cannot compose a proper and braw literary work Brecht, He emphasizes that radical innovations and changes which new sciences has brought to hiyatro humans, life and nature means nothing alone.

The point is to disseminate these innovations and changes to the entire society and to tihatro sure that everyone can benefit from them equally. Brecht keeps the distance at the same level between play and audience to make the audience think. No intention for an exact end for all of the audience can be observed in a play.

Instead they should stay as active and relaxed thinkers. In his book Understanding Brecht, Walter Benjamin says: The remark suggests the degree of relaxation which a narrative work can give to its reader. If we imagine a person attending a dramatic spectacle we tend to visualize the opposite.


We see someone who, with every fibre of his brechr, is intently following a process. The concept of epic theatre developed by Brecht, the theoretician of his own poetic praxis implies, above all, that the audience which this theatre desires to attract is a relaxed one, following the play in a relaxed manner. This bertolf can be done with two different effects which are historicization and alienation. Historicization is one of the key processes for Brecht, which avoids audience to identify themselves with the play.

Identification with the play, which is set in present time, will result in possess a feeling with play or a character, which will damage the critical manner of audience as to play.

To avoid this, he uses the historicization method. Setting and characters are developed in a distanct land and time. Narrator tells the story as if it happened in past. By using this method, audience will maintain to have the critical manner.

Alienation effect or distancing effect is another method to raise awareness for breecht artificiality of the play. So that, they can draw different inferences from the scenes of the play which might seem easy to understand. In this method, actors may inform the audience about the role they are to play unlike dramatic drama. There is dialogue between actors and audience. Actors may give the captions to audience about the events before they play it. These effects have the audience stay distinct from the play to make them aware of the fact that it is a play.

One can infer that with all these effects, Brecht broke the 4th wall. In the end, the attention of the audience are drawn at the end of the play which is not certain. A contradiction or a point of view is presented and the breecht of audience are stimulated. One of the most effective features of epic theatre is stage techniques. Differences of epic theatre from dramatic Aristotelian theatre have berfolt adapted basically for strengthening the expression.

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Staging in epic theatre differentiates with dramatic theatre thanks to characters, stage design, music, gestus and structure. Considering actor element in the bertplt theatre, acting is one of the most important factors that make the spectators to remember that is only a play.

While actors are showing their roles, they have to act as the ebrtolt that are animated in the play. Another responsibility of actors is to tell what will occurs in the next scene.

Actors can talk like the third person. The aim to be the third person narrator is to remind the audiences they are only actors.


Stage design is another different element. For Brecht, hiding sets, lights and his props are not required. Actors put on even their costumes in front of the audiences. That assists to Brecht for alienating the audiences. The stage is usually designed as stage within stage which means that the actors who do not have role in that scene can watch the play in front of the audiences while other actors go on to perform.

Another features of staging is about lightning. After the play begins, the lights on the audiences are not shut down because of the fact that it is aimed to make audiences participate to the play. Another task of lightning is to indicate differentiate the scenes.

A spot light is directed to the wall on the back of stage. It is associated with gestures and mimic and helps the actors to play and transfer the message of the play. Its dictionary meaning is to tell or to act a behavior. Gestus is the whole range of the outward signs of social relationships, including deportment, intonation, and facial expression. Each scene of a play has its basic gestus named as Grundgestus.

The gestus which gains the correct stance, movement, and tone of voice, assumes greater importance than the supposed inner life or emotions of these characters. In another way, the gestus contains the visible symptoms of social relations. Bertolt Brecht has been inspired by Chinese theatre whose actors use gestus method.

There is a differentiation of epic theatre in terms of technique. Epic theatre aims to avoid suspense. So Brecht usually stops the play and his actors tell what have happened and what will happen. Also a music is given which is harmonisationed with the coming scene. All that attempts about play is to leave some different impression on audiences rather than Aristotelian theatre.

It is not concidered that he wants to sell his ideology. Bertolt wants to tell the story to the audiance and he leaves them to think themselves but in his plays he bfrtolt gives the idea of marxism tought system. He often uses the modern problems in his plays and he presents to the audiance in an unusual way. By using alienation effect and historification technique he finds old and foreign, different issues in worldwide. While watching dramatic theatre we idealized the protoganist character and when he lives something we as an audiance accepts ttiyatro and lives it in our phisical structure.

Modern age is affected by darwinist theories and these theories are also affected the Brecht modern view of life.