Auf Grund des § 3 Abs. 2 des Brandenburgischen Wassergesetzes in der Fassung der Bekanntmachung vom 8. Dezember (GVBl. I S. 50), der durch. From –, Naturschutzfonds Brandenburg is implementing the LIFE Nature . conservation, Brandenburg); Brandenburgisches Wassergesetz (law of . 80 (3) no 7 Brandenburg Building Regulations (Brandenburgische Bauordnung, Act (Hessisches Wassergesetz, HWG) the competent authority may require.
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Assessment of river habitat in Brandenburg, Germany. Limnologica 34, — http: This method includes the analysis of different sources such as topographic and thematic maps, reports, remote sensing data, and interviews with authorities. It compares actual habitat conditions with natural conditions, and assesses the human disturbances using a seven-step scale.
Main human disturbances are canalization, bank stabilizations, flood control, migration barriers, and agricultural and urban development in the floodplain. All survey data and maps are em- bedded in a geographical information system GIS that not only allows future analysis and use in river restoration management by experts, but also brwndenburgische as information wassergfsetz the public. The river habitat map of Brandenburg is part of the river habitat map of the brandenburgischr Germany.
River habitat assessment — running water — ecology — geomorphology — Bran- denburg — Germany Introduction ment that included ecological interests.
Rivers were straightened and diverted, river bot- water flows in unnatural rivers. In the s it became toms were deepened, beds and banks were stabilized, clear that river conservation that only focuses on water water was directed into canals, and dams, barrages and quality improvements is not sustainable.
Instead, river dikes were erected. In the mid s, a general process management has to include the river habitat. Assessing the variation of a, b. Ina river habitat assessment was actual conditions from near-natural conditions will iden- initiated, and each individual federal state had to under- tify the ecological functioning of the river, i.
In Brandenburg, by the end of approx- and hydrological processes. Any disturbance of this ca- imately 1, km of rivers had been mapped using the pability will lower the habitat quality.
The map further provides a LAWA a.
The river habitat describes the ecomorphological ap- pearance of the river and includes factors such as bed, Legal foundation banks and floodplains. The more natural such structures are, the higher their ecological value. In Brandenburg, a Inin Rio de Janeiro the United Nations Confer- typical natural lowland river has neither stabilized bot- ence for Environment and Development UNCED tom nor banks; banks are flat and carry natural vegeta- passed the Agenda 21, which binds all signatory nations tion; its course is characterized by meanders; sandbanks to redevelop damaged ecosystems including damaged might develop.
Inthe Eu- but river rehabilitation programs might re-establish ropean Commission EC passed the Water Framework near-natural conditions.
Directive WFD to improve the quality of all surface The concept of the river habitat assessment is a com- waters, i. An appropriate manage- Fig. Example for the relation between actual condition, development purpose, and model.
All EU member states have Although with only c. Restrictions In a first step of surveying some basic morphological could be unnatural changes of sinuosity, unnatural loss features such as river width, plan form, and type of land- of structural diversity, or damaging anthropogenic influ- scape are mapped. The two main parameters of the ences LAWA Both main parameters are character- ronmental Conservation and Regional Planning ized by three functional units of the ecosystem. Each MLUR develops the political framework and supervis- functional unit includes particular individual parame- es the subordinate water authorities such as the Environ- ters, and a number of different forms help to describe mental Department of Brandenburg Landesumweltamt each of these nine individual parameters.
Brandenburgwho not only handle ecological, but also The survey is organized as a hierarchical index sys- public economic interests such as the guarantee of navi- tem and uses a seven-step scale that defines the variation gable major rivers and precautions such as flood control. In Brandenburg, near-natural conditions have riverbed dynamics are clearly disturbed class 4 ; B if to be re-established for all unnatural rivers. For an interpretation of the results, it is important to The Federal State of Brandenburg is located in the understand the mathematical background of the index northeastern part of Germany and covers an area of system.
Not all individual parameters are evaluated The mean altitude of the entire equally rather a criteria hierarchy reflects the real values state is c. Most of the drainage system was devel- So-called highly-integral parameters such as sinuosity oped or reshaped during the Last Glacial and or the potential for formation of structures are rated Holocene. Thus, the glacial landscape is a mosaic of higher than, for instance, the existence of model-like drift and morainic-belt topography, wide icemarginal valleys, outwash plains, and erosion gullies.
It is inter- spersed with around 27, km of rivers and around Table 1. Assessment of river habitat. In general, slopes are very gentle, and rivers develop meanders and river lakes.
Habitat Map For most of the rivers extreme high floods do not exist; in other cases such floods are very rare. In the ice- 1 1. The sandy and loamy soils 7 6. Location of the Federal State of Brandenburg in the eastern part of Germany. General organization of river habitat assessments in Germany. Assessment calculation method for A riverbed dynamics, B floodplain dynamics, and C final river habitat quality.
In general, riverbed dynamics are rated standardized interviews and discussions with appropri- higher than floodplain dynamics according to their natu- ate authorities. The index system also follows the The method was developed to map entire rivers that minimum principle: Nevertheless, the poor riverbed dynamics by good floodplain dynamics smallest survey unit is only a 1-km segment of the river, LAWA On ter the actual condition to the reference condition that the other hand, good structures that are of only lesser im- describes the near-natural condition.
The sheet offers portance for an ecological functioning of the river would several descriptions for each parameter from which the enhance its habitat quality. For instance, the sinuosity can be de- scribed as undisturbed, moderately, or heavily disturbed. Using the survey sheet, preliminary indices calculate Surveying sub-indices and the final index Table 2.
The latter one Using the overview method the assessment is done at the represents the habitat quality of this river unit.
Such information can derive from: The user is able to extract diagrams, undertaken to evaluate the results derived from maps, re- thematic maps, maps of different scale, maps of individ- mote sensing data, interviews, etc. The field survey ual parameters, etc.
Photographs are useful for documentation. Presenting results as clear and meaningful maps is the Results best way to communicate them to specialists, politicians, Riverbed dynamics and the public. In the final map each 1-km segment scribed by assessing the riverbed dynamics. It includes of the river appears in the color that represents its assess- plan form, riparian vegetation, and potential for struc- ment from undisturbed class 1 — dark blue to totally ture formation Fig.
The latter one includes bank sta- disturbed class 7 — red Table 1. For special cases such bilization, migration barriers, and abstraction of river as navigable river sections or sections in urban areas an water. The plan form plays a leading role: For such turbed plan form will lead to a low value for riverbed dy- hatched sections restoration to near-natural conditions is namics, even if the potential for structure formation is almost impossible due to competing public interest.
Good riverbed dynamics are given, when: Results from the habitat assessment of rivers in the Federal State of Brandenburg. Distribution of assessment classes from the survey 1, km of river units in Brandenburg: This indicates that strong human impacts are often Whereas some rivers such as the Schwarze Elster, the concentrated locally. A third group of rivers is can be found Fig. Distribution of individual parameter assessments from the survey 1, km of river units in Brandenburg: The habitat quality of the 25 rivers examined in Bran- denburg varies between little disturbed class 2 and to- tally disturbed class 7 around an average of clearly dis- Floodplain dynamics turbed class 4.
Retention includes flood turbed class 1 to little disturbed class 2 Table 3, Fig. Good floodplain dynamics ily disturbed class 5and on average the river habitat is are given, when: Regarding the average quali- natural land cover exists riverside forests, wetlands ; 3 ty of entire rivers, one could state that not one of the 25 the river is able to develop itself within the floodplain examined rivers is undisturbed class 1only one river without any restrictions.
Retention plays the leading role: The Stepenitz is the most nat- heavily disturbed classes 4—5 on average Table 3, Fig. Most of the floodplain is cultivated Since the s Germany assessed the biological and meadows, pastures, fieldsand also mixed land use chemical water quality of all rivers, but it was not earlier agriculture and urban development is common.
Brandenburgisches Wassergesetz – Christoph Baum, Axel Loger, Ulrike Schillemeit – Google Books
Only than the late s when an assessment of also ecomor- one-fifth of the units have a riparian corridor Fig. Today, in combi- nation both the biological water quality map and the habitat quality map represent a holistic water manage- Comparison of riverbed dynamics ment approach. Thus, poor riverbed dy- dardized overview method after LAWA. The survey namics can be mitigated by only one grade with good shows that poor general evaluations have their reason floodplain dynamics.
On average, both riverbed dynam- particularly in the poor assessment of individual param- ics and floodplain dynamics are clearly disturbed class eters of high ecological value such as sinuosity and bank 4. However, in 19 out of the 25 examined rivers the stabilization. Human disturbances have widely driven riverbed dynamics are better than the floodplain dynam- out the natural riparian vegetation; transverse barriers ics Table 3, Fig. This shows that human impact is hinder migration of flora and fauna; and a natural flood- often significant in floodplains through agriculture, ing behavior is still possible in only limited areas, since urban development, and flood control, and therefore nat- most parts of the floodplain are under agriculture.
Assessment of river habitat in Brandenburg, Germany | Ulrich Kamp –
For instance, the Dosse re- often seen as brandenburrgische traffic and transportation routes, thus ceived low grades for its riverbed dynamics due to the interests focused on technical improvements rather wassergeaetz high number of migration barriers and bank stabiliza- ecological values. Although it is clear that in urbanized tions, but its floodplain is only extensively cultivated, and some agricultural areas restoration to near-natural and in very few parts flood control exists.
In contrast, the conditions can only be limited or is even impossible be- Oder received low grades for its floodplain dynamics, cause public and private properties require protection since the sassergesetz is intensively cultivated and flood- from natural hazards such as floodingfor many river ing is limited.
Ecomorphological survey of large rivers.
It gives a relatively quick idea about the habitat nual. Landesumweltamt Brandenburg fish migration step, after the removal of bank or flood eds. Grundlagen und Kartierung, pp.
Today, the value of Springer, Berlin. Guidance standard rivers not only for natural ecosystems, but also for for assessing the hydromorphological features of rivers.
Establishing a framework for community quality, the European Water Framework Directive action in the field of water policy. Re- brandennurgische national to European standards. The European port for the Landesumweltamt Brandenburg, Potsdam.