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Walter Carlos Costa Co-orientador: Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina. And finally, last but by no means least: It examines the formation and selection criteria of anthologies in both literary cultures, and strategies and approaches for poetry translation. Finally it discusses three of the poets and their poems chosen for the project, analyses the translations, and evaluates the finished product.
The world is never the same once a good poem has been added to it. A good poem helps to change the shape and significance of the universe, helps to extend everyone s knowledge of himself and the world around him.
Dylan Thomas,On Poetry, Quite early one morning While Thomas statement is true to an extent, it is almost certainly utopian. He also does not define a good poem in itself a utopian taskbut one assumes that he is referring to a work that through its quality and emotive power pertains or will pertain to a cultural canon.
While a good poem may well help to change the shape and significance of its surroundings, it is invariably limited by its own linguistic parameters. In any culture much of what we know has come through the vehicle of translation; we have inherited a wealth of knowledge though the mediation of frequently invisible translators, who have made works from one language culture available to others.
In all cultures the literary canon evolves over time, but although there have been numerous studies of national mono-lingual cultural canons 1 and their evolution, there has been comparatively little investigation into how translated works infiltrate and shape other cultures, and until relatively recently 2 fairly scant formal research on comparative and cross-cultural canon, the translated literary canon and the role of anthologies of translated works in writing cultures. Eliot s On Poetry and Poets.
Even though the dynamic is complex and difficult to analyse, this lacuna is somewhat surprising if one considers that literary anthologies are a highly effective means of transmitting a culture and expressing its spirit internationally.
We should first determine what the banner of translation embraces. Although in its widest terms translation is intralingual, a process constantly operating within just one cultural-linguistic system, it is interlingual translation that interests us here.
Interlingual translation has been variously defined as identity across linguistic systems Quine, A socio-historical systemic approach allows one to embrace all of the above within an expanded definition of translation that includes all utterances which are presented or regarded as such [as translation] within the target culture on no matter what grounds Toury, As all the above models of translation have been valued within individual cultural systems at certain times, they are also justifiable within Even-Zohar s descriptive rather than evaluative concept of a literary polysystem, which holds that not only translation, but every kind of writing, is done to submit to or satisfy specific personal, political or social constraints and that certain cultural systems hold greater international influence than others.
Prior to the polysystem theory there was comparatively little consideration of the role translated works played within a given culture 4 ; but because the theory is descriptive, target-oriented and functional, it is able to treat translation as deservedly having an important reflexive influence in literary systems and in the multicultural formation of literary styles. This systemic approach is enticing. Although research into individual systems has been too limited to come to firm conclusions cf.
The mid-century New Critics held that any kind of extra-textual commentary would distort a poem in its unity this included study of the poet s biography, philosophy, or historical-cultural context. This approach is nowadays considered by most to imply an idealized model of what a poem should be, should communicate.
For a translator, particularly a translator of poetry, which has a multiplicity of codes and associative images, I believe it is untenable to pass over time, culture and values, using some miraculous highway to access the essence of a poem if indeed such a thing exists.
Pym, is more useful to consider, not only as a method of post-translation analysis and evaluation, but also as a pre-translational incentive to discover as much as possible about the poets to be translated, their influences, aims, and intertextual inspiration. This helps to contextualize work within a system, rather than diving headlong into the translation of uncontextualized syntax. I am convinced this kind of interpretation is an essential part of the hermeneutic circle.
Você nasceu para ser livre – Padre Leo
At face value these figures imply that translated literature holds a much less influential position in Anglophone countries than it does in Brazil. However, as they are generalized figures, they do not specify what kind of translated texts they encompass.
While the former percentage is much higher and suggests that the Brazilian market is awash with translated works, one must consider the issue of quality rather than of merely quantity. There are hundreds of instruction manuals, potboilers and bestsellers that have been translated into Brazilian Portuguese, and while major works from the international canon have also been translated, there have been, buscaj example, relatively few anthologies of translated poetry when busvai to the number on the Anglophone market.
The seemingly insignificant ratio of translation in English-speaking countries tends to include more influential international works and also includes many more anthologies of poetry 8. Source texts 9 are invariably carefully screened, altop-e.leo publishers do not wish to import something that their own language culture already has in plenty.
However, it is thought provoking to find that there is no 5 [ It should be noted that these figures indiscriminately include purely communicative, informative texts as well as literary ones.
For more on these international exchange relations cf. There are several possible factors involved in the choice of a text for translation. Casanovain her wide-reaching study mapping the unequal relations of the literary market, posits a kind of literary Greenwich meridian that cuts through Paris, London and New York.
For literature written in a dominant language in the literary world market a central literary capital, translation permits its international diffusion to more peripheral political and cultural languages and nations thus enriching national literary resources and redirecting literary wealth. For works written in less influential languages to be successful internationally they must also be made accessible through translation.
If a text is only available in Brazilian Portuguese for exampleits international diffusion is somewhat handicapped. The first condition corresponds with Brazil, as despite being colonised over years ago, its literary culture is extraordinarily young This is because 10 However, she suggests this last city along with Frankfurt is more a leader on the literary market rather than the literature market.
Brazil’s first printing press was inaugurated in ; however it wasn’t until the s that Brazil began to produce its own translated publications rather than relying on those in European Portuguese Antonio Candido suggests that it is due to this relative immaturity that Brazilian literature has always depended on the literature of others Clearly, there are exceptions to this rule, the United States a young culture with a rich literary history being one, but the stronger literatures that Candido cites as self-sufficient French, Italian, English, German, Russian and Spanish much in keeping with Casanova s view are older, and are thus able to reap the benefits of tradition: It is not therefore surprising that when we look at the UNESCO index of translations, we find that the languages Brazil most translates from are English, followed by French, German, Spanish and Italian 15, all languages with long-established literary cultures.
We also find that Even-Zohar’s third condition is in a way pertinent to Brazil: There’s no lack of quality in the Luso- Brazilian tradition, but rather of quantity, and there are some serious historical gaps [ ] Thanks to these gaps, there are many possibilities we can and must explore.
Thus one could opine that Brazilian literature has a double need for translated texts. It should be noted that he privileges older literary translations, his organization is somewhat eccentric and his evaluation of the translations is unabashedly personal.
This is possibly to do with a perceived self-sufficiency 16 and perhaps a hesitancy to incorporate ideas and attitudes from other cultures, and it means that there is perhaps not such general acceptance and understanding of translated texts and their respective cultures.
This leads me to believe that the translation of literary texts into English in a world frequently dominated linguistically by the English language continues to be important, as it may paradoxically help to destabilize the predominating monolingual complacency.
Translated texts from other cultures can open minds and broaden horizons; and in an environment so frequently full of strife and petty-mindedness the opportunity to see other cultures and hear others opinions may contribute to making people less subjective and more objective; and perhaps a little more tolerant of a shared humanity. Brazil, a country where sometimes you suspect there are more poets than readers of poetry 17, has a vast poetic output, and this sheer volume makes the task of selection for an anthology of poetry particularly complicated.
This implies that translator-anthologists [are] far closer to their actual texts than[to] non-translational anthologies, allowing them a partly authorial status ibid. The result of this perspective is that even though I am British and not a recognised authority on Brazilian poetry in Brazil, I may hope to justify my selections through other means.
There are certain elements that are important to define before embarking on the construction of an anthology of translated poetry. One should consider the target reader, at whom the anthology is aimed, in addition to its purpose; its Skopos Vermeer, or formal cause 16 Although Anglo-American culture tends to import a significant amount of French, German and Italian literature, philosophy and also art.
It is also necessary to decide on the selection criteria within the pre-defined genre, language, culture and period. The temporal and cultural context into which the work will be inserted should be considered, and this further implies a consideration of the presentation and format, which include questions of organization and ordering, vuscai e.
A bilingual format for an anthology such as this is vital. Although there may be editorial bucai of space for certain publications, alt-ope.leo can be a frustrating experience to read a translation of a poem without having access to the poem in the source language for examples of this incomplete format see Carlisle,and Weissbort, A bilingual presentation also helps readers to reach a deeper understanding of the text thus enriching the poetic experience.
Literary texts are fuller when read with their translation, [ ] This is because taken together these texts and translations loosely enclose an interliminal space of meaning, allusion and sound. In doing so I do not intend to take the ST captive, nor do Coisae wish to take the author to the reader in the more conservative translational sense.
Neither do I believe ad it is possible to recover and transfer all the essential meaning of a ST into a TT particularly as 18 Naaijkens, mentions the seven criteria for systematizing anthologies drawn up by Klein However, it should be possible to create translations that are satisfactorily analogous.
This thesis will treat both of the major aspects of literary translation; the process and the product. My aim is to compile and translate an anthology of poems representative of the Brazilian poetical canon fromthe year Brazilian Modernism was officially launched 20, until the present day, and to present and evaluate these same translations as works that represent the source texts in the target culture.
There is disagreement about the origins of Brazilian literature as opposed to literature written alto-pe.lel Portuguese in the European fashion. It is impossible to draw a dividing line clearly between a pre- Brazilian and Brazilian literature, as the formation of any literature is, by its nature, gradual. Although Stegagno Picchio In an anthology that can be read as both a cultural narrative and a record, I intend to offer a selection of canonical and contemporary poems in translation, from a country overflowing with poetry, to a linguistic culture that can be enriched, enchanted and perhaps utopian though it may be even enfranchised by it.
In order to go any further, it is first necessary to define the concepts of canon alti-pe.leo anthology, to examine what coissas the Brazilian canon, and to look at the cross-cultural Brazilian and Anglo-American canon. Our civilization had lost its traditional exclusively agricultural and coastal defining contours]. Alto–pe.leo define what is good poetry is just as difficult a task as establishing a theory that provides rules on how to create it, and there is no general agreement on a single definition of style or aesthetic effect.
The Western canon is varyingly seen as an authoritative historical chronicle a history of writing within communitiesan idealized form of literary expression, and a didactic concept created in the nineteenth-century with texts chosen for bkscai study in schools and colleges Even-Zohar adheres to the first of these, defining canonised works as those literary norms di works [ ]which are accepted as legitimate by the dominant ircles within a culture and whose conspicuous products are preserved by the community to become part of its historical heritage Pascale Casanova takes this one step further on from an international perspective.
She discusses a certificate of literary standing Ideally it includes those poems that stretch common language to the busai of its cousas of expression, beauty, emotion and lucidity.
The canon is a linguistic capital [ The fact that it was compiled in the s but only included works up to the end of the nineteenth-century underscores the implication that tradition and longevity are strong contributory factors of canon: One should also consider that nowadays value judgements are often made about poets and writers according to how many prizes they have won 26, meaning that awards may also bestow what Casanova calls literary credit in what she sees as the literary economy A common understanding of the term anthology byscai that it is synonymous with a representation of the best of.
In England at the end of vo nineteenth-century it became a fashion to draw up lists of the hundred best books, for edification and enlightenment. This, in effect, alyo-pe.leo to the canonization of the canon. The first hundred best list was compiled in by Sir John Lubbock who, although he later and perhaps belatedly retracted his reification of the hundred best, had already started ass trend which persists to this day cf.
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Of course, the idea that it is possible to categorically state which works pertain to this mythical concept is preposterous; however, with a suitable disclaimer it can be a convenient form of literary transmission. Amusingly, when a complete edition of Lubbock s hundred was published in it came with the assurance that his list remains today unchallenged as the best possible list of the best hundred books.
Nor is canon limited to a single culture; each culture has its own and in any one culture the canon will include texts translated from several; 25 It should be noted that she also adheres to the importance of history: Eliot, “No poetic reputation ever remains exactly in the same place: This suggests that any significant study of canon should be comparative and cross-cultural in order to trace the relationships between literary cultures and approach an understanding of their complex dynamics; however, this is not within the scope of the present study.
A translated canon can be contributed to through both aesthetic and individual choice. Thus, a translator can be a kind of “agent of transfer” Even-Zohar, Although there are also anthologies of literary extracts, short novels and short stories 32, poetry is particularly suited to anthologising due to its condensed forms. Just as in a well-arranged dinner, what ad enjoys is not a number of dishes by themselves but the combination of good things, so there are guscai of poetry to be taken in the same way Eliot,