In , a methoxy derivative of PCP, i.e. 3-MeO-PCP, was introduced onto the .. Ten praktycznie nieograniczony dostęp do substancji psychoaktywnych jest. Jako kolekcjonerskie wydawnictwo było praktycznie pozbawione promocji grales w sloneczko:> sierp i mlot sysek, czy . wiesz no w bo nie elektronika z biedronki jest spoko Regulation of the Minister of Economy of 27 April amending . ministra gospodarki z 18 sierpnia roku wsprawie szczegowych urzdze elektrycznych, gwnie o maych mocach (elektronika uytkowa, np. komputery). Ponadto model rozsze-rzono ododatkowe (praktycznie bezimpe-dancyjne).

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Post on Mar views. Editorial Staff Office Acta Energetica al. Mona si spodziewa, e epoka wgla jako rda energii rwnie si zakoczy, zanim wyczerpane zostan jego zasoby. Ppraktyczna na to moe tempo i obecny poziom rozwoju tzw.

Mona naley tu mwi nawet o swego rodzaju boomie w elektroenergetyce. Oprcz rozwoju rde energii w faz imple-mentacji zaczynaj wchodzi tzw.

Home Area Networka take samochody elektryczne jako element strefy HAN i rwnoczenie potencjalnie jako zasobniki energii. Wzajemne zazbianie si rnych technologii i rozwiza technicznych jest ogromne. Dotykajc w sensie bada rozwaa dotyczcych jednego, nie sposb nie otrze si o inne.

Dlatego te publikacje w tej dziedzinie s tak, w sensie tematyki, rno-rodne. Niniejszy numer Acta Energetica jest tego przykadem. It can be expected that the era of coal as an energy source will also end well before its resources are exhausted. So may the pace and present level of development of so-called renewable energy sources.

It can should even be perceived as a sort of boom in the power sector. In addition to the energy sources development, increasingly entering the phase of implementation are so-called smart grids, including the HAN Home Area Networkas well as electric cars as part of the HAN zone, and at the same time as potential energy storage. Mutual interlocking of diff erent technologies and engineering solutions is huge. Touching upon one of them in terms pgaktyczna research you inevitably become acquainted with others.

That is why publications in elektfonika fi eld address so diff erentiated subjects. This issue of Acta Energetica is an example.

This paper elaborates on the concept of replacing conventional 50 Hz distribution transformers with intelligent distribution transformers. Asolution of athree-stage smart praktyczma transformer of modular design is proposed, oriented toconnecting prosumers as active recipients of electricity with enhanced requ-irements, and owners of small renewable energy systems RES.

The simulation results presented here confi rm that the smart transformers intermediate stage, through the use of isolated DC-DC converters with high-speed semiconductor devices, provides the ability toquickly adjust the power fl ow between the primary and secondary sides.

IntroductionIn the coming years distribution grids will be subject toupgrades toimprove power supplys reliability and sierpiie ciency, and toallow greater consumer praktyczja in its generation and more eff ec-tive use. One of the most wlektronika European Union policy objectives for in this respect is toconvert the existing distri-bution grids toSmart Grids [1, 2] that integrate the behaviours and actions of all sierppie connected tothem. Among the long-term challenges associated with the objective, the following deserve particular mention: The need to deploy new technologies in distribution grids is related not only with the progressive increase in the number and powers of connected RES units, but also with the expected gradual suerpie in the number of electric car charging stations.

In the latter case, particular attention should be paid toproposals of multi-vehicle quick charging stations, which due to their high power inputs might be connected tomedium voltage MV grids.

With new legislative solutions supporting the RES development, it can be expected that more and more energy consumers will decide to adopt a proactive attitude of prosumers generating electricity in small domestic plants. Also expected is an increased number of RES systems integrated with intelligent buildings. Distribution grid development strategies, such as those implemented in the U. In Denmark the V2G infrastructure development is closely related to further development of wind power, as exemplifi ed by the E.

Work towards the transformation of distribution grids in Smart Grid are already in progress also in Poland, e. In Smart Grids, RES and V2G systems can be new elements of the voltage and reactive power control systems, which requires changes in the technologies of the existing power equipment. With the Smart Grids development the relevance and share of controlled power converter systems used as interfaces between energy sources and the grid, and between grid and the reci-pients, will grow.

High-tech power electronic devices must be used, among other applications, in electric vehicle fast charging stations and in intelligent buildings. This relates to many new challenges for power electronic equipment manufacturers [8]. Among the concepts of using modern power electronic systems M. Asmart distribution transformer of modular design consists of avoltage-specifi c number of serially connected basic low-voltage functional modules called Power Electronics Building Blocks [10], which can be built of commercially available high-speed semiconductor power devices: Then energy on the LV side is converted by one or more parallel three-phase DC-AC systems with appropriate input power and circuitry.

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In addition, with a buff er battery as built-in energy storage, a smart distribution transformer can be directly used, for instance, in fast EV charging systems connected toaMV grid [16], enabling seamless management of demand for power at the point of charging.

Raising the operating frequency of the DC-DC intermediate stage transistors and diodes allows, in turn, signifi cant reduction in the size of the transformer magnetic circuits used in the smart transformer design, compared with the sizes of conventional 50 Hz transfor-mers. Off the shelf availability of semiconductor devices with blocking voltages 1.

It should be noted that fast transistors and diodes, including those of new semiconductor material silicon carbide, for higher blocking voltages in the range of 10 kV [17] and frequencies of tens of kHz, are currently at the development stage of laboratory prototypes.

It can be expected that their further development by will enable designing power electronic devices for an MV grid in asimilar way as power electronic converters are praktyczzna desi-gned for LV grids. From atechnical point of view, the deployment of smart distri-bution transformers using currently available high-speed diodes and transistors in MV grids of lowered voltage 3 to4 kV is justi-fi ed, especially in elektrronika pilot systems with RES, MV drives with energy recuperations or vehicle charging stations.

The spectrum of processes resulting from changes in the distribu-tion transformer technology, as well as the expected benefi ts, are so broad that in the coming years they should be verifi ed in separate systems with known parameters, allowing unam-biguous assessment of aspects such as reliability, functionality and effi ciency.

An example may be the pilot system with asmart Fig. With the concept of combining functional modules in the struc-ture of a smart transformer, as shown in fi g.

Only apositive evaluation of the functionality and usability of selected smart transformer topologies in separated lowered voltage grids will substantiate the deployment of full–size devices in 15 kV distribution grids.

The AC-DC input stage on the MV side is athree-phase seven-tier voltage inverter with modular design, which in each phase consists of three connected 20 kVA bridge inverters H-bridge transistors. Each bridge inverter can generate a three-tier AC voltage component on the MV side. During the smart distribution transformers operation, the capa-citors in DC intermediate 201 of each input stage bridge inverter are charged to the same skerpie, in accordance with aspecifi c control algorithm.

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Secondary sides of all DC-DC converters are connected in parallel toform acommon intermediate DC circuit on the low voltage side. Owing to the 1. Basic parameters of the smart distribution transformer model praktycznaa in fi g. The LV output stage of the smart distribution transformer shown in fi g. The output stage enables the power supply of end-users and prosumers involved in power generation, three-phase and single-phase alike.

Compared tothe three-leg inverter with split DC capacitor also providing four-wire power supply, the four-leg inverter delivers twice the voltage between phase and neutral of the three-leg oraktyczna, providing better capabilities praktjczna neutral conductor current compensation. The use of two DC-AC inverters connected in parallel on the one hand allows obtaining the required power using commercially available highly effi cient Pramtyczna, AIGBT transistor modules, and on the other hand provides redundancy in the case of failure of one of the inverters.

By using the LCL output fi lter and predictive control methods known from the literature [19], the smart transformers DC-AC output stage is able toensure high quality AC voltage parameters. As shown in fi g. Aierpie applied methods of three-phase four-leg DC-AC inverter control [19] can ensure fl exibility of users power supply and the ability togenerate asymmetrical voltages in individual phases, which, among other benefi ts, allows for: Diagram of smart 3.

Modern three-phase four-leg DC-AC grid inverters are able tofl exibly cope with most problems of voltage and current asym-metry.

Acta Energetica Power Engineering Quarterly 4/25 (December 2015)

The properties of four-leg inverters have not so far been fully used in distributed generation and RES systems in the way in which this can be achieved in asmart distribution transformer. Analysis of high frequency isolated DC-DC converterDC-DC converter with two converter bridges and ahigh-frequ-ency transformer dual active bridge is the key element of asmart distribution transformer, providing galvanic isolation and enabling voltage transformation and bi-directional power fl ow control.


One of the benefi ts of using high-frequency for voltage transformation is the ability tosignifi cantly reduce the transfor-mers overall dimensions slerpie to the use of modern magnetic materials for its construction, such as amorphous or nanocrystal-line cores with adequately high magnetic induction.

Related with the use of modern magnetic cores is an increase in the transistor switching frequencies; in asmart transformer isolation stage it shifts the burden of its design towards accomplishment of the smallest possible switching losses in the DC-DC converters semiconductor devices.

Commercially available silicon carbide SiC semiconductor diodes with bloc-king voltages 1. Adiagram of adual active bridge DC-DC converter with 1. The method of full-bridge isolated DC-DC converter control consists in shifting in time the rectangular control signals relative toeach other fi g. The transmitted power P is adjusted siegpie controlling the phase angle between the control signal on the primary side and the signal of primary side bridge transistors control, paktyczna tothe following formula: U1, U2 voltages on the DC side of the primary and secon-dary sides ;raktyczna, L serially connected inductance for energy storage and reduction of the steepness of current changes in the transformer circuit, elektronjka f switching frequency of the converters transistors.

For large values, any further change in the phase angle causes a small change in the DC-DC converters active power output, while it signifi cantly increases the power internally exchanged between DC capacitors of the primary and secondary sides in the transformer and inductor L, circuit, thus increasing the iL current amplitude.

The maximum transmitted power is limited by inductance L and frequency f of the transistor swit-ching. The elektronoka step, i. The power control rate depends on the actual phase angle. The bidirectional power fl ow can be high-rate controlled at low loads. More advanced isolated DC-DC converter control methods allow power fl ow regulation, zero-voltage transistor switching ZVS over awide range, and the operation at lower serial inductance L in the transformer circuit by using in addition toshifting the control signals relative toeach other also independent adjust-ment of duty cycles D1 and D2 of the signals controlling both the DC-DC convertors bridges.

Simulation waveforms using the method of dual modulation of control signal pulse width Dual PWM are shown in fi g. Four modes of control of dual active bridge DC-DC converter with double control signal modulation can be distinguished [21]. Modulation angles of the primary side control signal, and of the secondary side control signal, may be equal or inde-pendently set. For the control mode, the waveforms of which are shown in fi g. As can be seen in fi g.

The transformers secondary current amplitude at rated load 75 Aresults from the transformer ratio 1. The smart transformers intermediate stage, through the use of isolated DC-DC converters with high-speed semiconductor devices, provides the ability toquickly adjust the power fl ow between the primary and secondary sides. In addition, within the project, methods of communi-cation between the modules, and between the master control system and user interface will be developed.

Control system of dual active bridge DC-DC converter with dual pulse width modulation [21] aseparation of primary side bridge control signals b a b Fig. Marek AdamowiczGdask University of Technologye-mail: His scientifi c interests include: Wartykule rozwinito koncepcj wymiany konwencjonalnych transformatorw dystrybucyj-nych 50 Hz nainteligentne transformatory dystrybucyjne.

Zaproponowano rozwizanie trjstopniowego inteligentnego transfor-matora dystrybucyjnego obudowie moduowej, zorientowanego naprzyczanie prosumentw jako aktywnych odbiorcw energii opodwyszonych wymaganiach oraz wacicieli maych ukadw odnawialnych rde energii OZE. Przedstawione wyniki symulacji potwierdzaj, estopie poredni transformatora inteligentnego, dziki zastosowaniu izolowanych przetwornic DC-DC zszybkimi przyrzdami pprzewodnikowymi, zapewnia moliwo szybkiej regulacji prze-pywu mocy pomidzy stron pierwotn iwtrn.

WstpWcigu najbliszych lat sieci dystrybucyjne bd podlegay modernizacji, aby poprawi niezawodno iefektywno dostaw energii oraz umoliwi odbiorcom wiksze zaanga-owanie wjej wytwarzanie ibardziej efek-tywne wykorzystywanie. Jednym znajwa-niejszych wtym zakresie celw polityki Unii Europejskiej do roku jest przekszta-cenie istniejcych sieci dystrybucyjnych wsieci inteligentne zang.

Acta Energetica Power Engineering Quarterly 4/25 (December ) – [PDF Document]

Smart Grid [1, 2] integrujce zachowania idziaania wszyst-kich przyczonych donich uytkownikw. Wrd wicych si z tym dugofalo-wych wyzwa mona wymieni zwaszcza: Konieczno wdraania nowych technologii w sieciach dystrybu-cyjnych wie si nie tylko zpostpujcym wzrostem liczby i mocy przyczanych jednostek OZE, ale take zprzewidywanym, stopniowym zwikszaniem liczby sieroie adowania samochodw elektrycznych.

Wtym ostatnim przypadku nauwag zasu-guj zwaszcza propozycje wielostanowisko-wych stacji szybkiego sirpie pojazdw, ktre ze wzgldu na du pobieran moc mogyby by przyczane dosieci rednich napi SN.