(This introduction is not part of IEEE P/D23, Draft Standard for At the time this draft standard was completed, the P Task Group had the following. IEEE P Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) standardization project for encryption of stored data, but more generically refers to the. IEEE P/D6, February IEEE P™/D6. Draft Standard for Key Management. Infrastructure for Cryptographic. Protection of Stored Data. 1. 2. 3. 4 .

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Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers IEEE standardization project ieee encryption of stored data, but more generically refers to the Security in Storage Working Group SISWGwhich includes a family of standards for protection of stored data and for the corresponding cryptographic key management.

P also standardized the key backup in the XML format. An encryption algorithm used for data storage has to support independent encryption and decryption of portions of data.

So-called narrow-block algorithms operate on relatively small portions of data, while the wide-block algorithms encrypt or decrypt a whole sector. Narrow-block algorithms have the advantage of more efficient hardware implementation. On the other hand, smaller block size provides finer granularity for data modification attacks. There is no standardized “acceptable granularity”; however, for example, the possibility of data modification with the granularity of one bit bit-flipping attack is generally considered unacceptable.

For these reasons, the working group selected the narrow-block bits encryption with no authentication in the standard P, assuming that the added efficiency warrants the additional risk. But recognizing that wide-block encryption might be useful in some cases, another project P Both the disk storage standard P sometimes o1619 P Some members of the group found it non-trivial to abandon Eiee, because it had been available for public peer-review for many years unlike most of the newly suggested ieeee.

The issues of LRW were:. Disk encryption is a special case of data at rest protection when the storage medium is a sector-addressable device e. This article presents cryptographic aspects of the problem.

IEEE P – Wikiwand

For discussion of different software packages and hardware devices devoted to this problem see disk encryption software and disk encryption hardware. Problem definition Disk encryption methods aim to provide three distinct properties: The data on the disk should remain confidential.

Data retrieval and storage should both be fast operations, no matter where on the disk the data is p1691. The encryption method should not waste disk space i. The first property requires defining an adversary from whom the data is being kept confidential. The strongest adversaries studied in the field of disk encryption have iree abilities: IEEE-SA has developed standards for over a century, ieeee a program that offers balance, openness, fair procedures, and consensus.

Technical experts from all over the world participate in the development of IEEE standards. IEC members are so called National Committees, some of which are hosted by national standards bodies.

These are not identical to ISO members. GCM throughput rates for state-of-the-art, high-speed communication channels can be achieved with reasonable hardware resources. GCM is defined for block ciphers with a block size of bits. Different block cipher modes of operation can have significantly different performance and efficiency characteristics, even when used with the same block cipher.

GCM can take full advantage of parallel processing and implementing GCM can make efficient use of an instruction pipeline or a hardware pipeli It is similar in function to other disk jeee programs including TrueCrypt and Microsoft’s BitLocker. The original program can be downloaded from a mirror at Sourceforge. The Key Management Interoperability Protocol KMIP is an extensible communication protocol that defines message formats for the iee of cryptographic keys on a key management server. This facilitates data encryption by simplifying encryption key management.


Keys may be created on a server and then retrieved, possibly wrapped by other keys. Both symmetric and asymmetric keys are supported, including the ability to sign certificates. KMIP also allows for clients to ask a server to encrypt or decrypt data, without needing direct access to the key. The KMIP standard was first released in Clients and servers are commercially available from multiple vendors.

Technical details can also be found on 1p619 official KMIP page and wiki. Description A KMIP server stores and controls Managed Objects such as symmetric and asymmetric keys, certificates, and user defined objects This is a technical feature comparison 1p619 different disk encryption software.

Shack—Hartmann system in optometry: Laser creates a virtual light source in the retina. The lenslet array creates spots in p11619 sensor according to the wavefront coming out of the eye. Inverse of the Shack—Hartmann system in optometry: It is a wavefront sensor commonly used in adaptive optics systems. It consists of an array of lenses called lenslets of the same focal length.

The local tilt of the wavefront across each lens can then be calculated from the position of the focal spot on the sensor. Any phase aberration can be approximated by a set of discrete tilts. p16199


By sampling an array of l Storage security is a specialty area of security that iee concerned with securing data storage systems and ecosystems and the data that resides o1619 these systems. Introduction According to the Storage Networking Industry Association SNIAstorage security represents the p11619 of the storage, networking, and security disciplines, technologies, and methodologies for the purpose of protecting and securing digital assets.

Technical controls, which may include integrity, confidentiality and availability controls, that protect storage resources and data idee unauthorized users and uses. Decision tree learning uses a decision tree as a predictive model to go from observations about an item represented in the branches to conclusions about the item’s target value represented in the leaves. It is one of the predictive modelling approaches used iese statistics, data mining and machine learning.

Tree models keee the target variable can take a discrete set of values are called classification trees; in these tree structures, leaves represent class labels and branches represent conjunctions of features that lead to those class labels. Decision trees where the target variable can take continuous values typically real numbers are called regression trees. In decision analysis, a decision tree can be used to visually and explicitly represent decisions and decision making. In data mining, a decision tree describes data but the resulting classification tree can be an input for decision making.

This page deals with decision trees in data mining. General A tree showing survival of passengers on The woodcut shows Arithmetica instructing an algorist and an abacist inaccurately represented as Boethius and Pythagoras. There was keen competition between the two from the introduction of the Algebra into Europe in jeee 12th century until its triumph in the 16th.

Today, abacuses are often constructed as a bamboo frame with beads sliding on wires, but originally they were beans or stones moved in grooves in sand or on tablets of wood, stone, or metal. Abacuses come in different designs.

Some designs, like the bead frame consisting of beads divided into tens, are used mainly to teach arithmetic, although they remain popular in the post-Soviet states Optical or photonic computing uses photons produced by lasers or diodes for ieef. For decades, photons have promised to allow a higher bandwidth than the electrons used in conventional computers.


Most research projects focus on replacing current computer components with optical equivalents, resulting in an optical digital computer system processing binary data. This approach appears to offer the best short-term prospects for commercial optical computing, since optical components could be integrated into traditional computers to produce an optical-electronic hybrid. All-optical computers eliminate the need for optical-electrical-optical OEO conversions, thus lessening the need for electrical power.

Agrawal is a communications scientist who specialises in wireless sensor networks. Goode Iewe Award of the same society in Images of auroras from around the world, including those with rarer red and blue lights Aurora australis from the ISS, Video of this iewe The resulting ionization and excitation of atmospheric constituents emits light of varying color and complexity.

The form of the aurora, occurring within bands around both polar regions, is also dependent on the amount of accele It was painted in8 years after his last calculating clock drawing. Wilhelm Schickard 22 April — 24 October was a German professor of Hebrew and Astronomy who became famous in the second part of ieed 20th century after Dr. Franz Hammer, a biographer along with Max Caspar of Johannes Kepler, claimed that the drawings of a calculating clock, predating the public release of Pascal’s calculator by twenty years, had been discovered in two unknown letters written by Schickard to Johannes Kepler in and Hammer asserted that because these letters had been lost for three hundred years, Blaise Pascal had been called[3] and celebrated as[4] the inventor of the mechanical calculator in error during all this time.

After careful examination it was found that Schikard’s drawings had been published at least once Signal is an encrypted communications app for Android and iOS. A desktop version is also available for Linux, Windows, and macOS. It uses the Internet to send one-to-one and group messages, which can include files, voice notes, images and videos, and make one-to-one voice and video calls.

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The applications include mechanisms by which users can independently verify the identity of their messaging correspondents and the integrity of the data channel.

The clients are published as free and open-source software under the GPLv3 license. Key management refers to management of cryptographic keys in a cryptosystem. This includes dealing with the generation, exchange, storage, use, crypto-shredding destruction and replacement of keys. It includes cryptographic protocol design, key servers, user procedures, and other relevant protocols. This is in contrast to key scheduling, which typically refers to the internal handling of keys within the operation of a cipher.

Successful key management is critical to the security of a cryptosystem. It is the more challenging side of cryptography in a sense that it involves aspects of social engineering such as system policy, user training, organizational and departmental interactions, and coordination between all of these elements, in contrast to pure mathematical practices that can be automated. Types of keys Cryptographic systems may use different types of keys, with some systems using more iee one.

These may include s In probability theory and statistics, the Weibull distribution is a continuous probability distribution. Definition Standard parameterization The probability density function p16619 a Weibull random variable is: Its complementary cumulative distribution function is a stretched exponential function.

If the quantity X is a “time-to-failure”, the Weibull distribu