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The term  alludes to a person who rejects or disbelieves in God as described by Islam according to the teachings of the Islamic prophet Muhammad  and denies the dominion and authority of the Islamic god, and is thus often translated as ” infidel “. As a pre-Islamic term it described farmers burying seeds in the ground. One of its applications in the Quran is also the same meaning as farmer. Ideologically, it implies a person who hides or covers the truth.
The last two meanings involve ” kofer ” that mean “ransom”. The practice of declaring another Muslim as a kafir is takfir. The distinction between those who believe in Islam and those who do not is an essential one in the Quran, the book of Islam. Kairand its plural kuffaaris used directly times in Quran, its verbal noun ” kufr ” is used 37 times, and the verbal cognates of kafir are used about times. According to the E.
Brill’s First Encyclopaedia of Islam, —, Volume 4the term first applied in the Quran to unbelieving Meccans, kain endeavoured “to refute and revile the Prophet”. A waiting attitude towards the kafir was recommended at first for Muslims; later, Muslims were ordered to keep apart from unbelievers and defend themselves against their attacks and even take the offensive.
According to scholar Marilyn Waldman, as the Quran “progresses” as the reader goes from the verses revealed first to later kaubthe meaning behind the term kafir does not change but “progresses”, i. As the Islamic Prophet Muhammad ‘s views of his opponents change, his use of kafir “undergoes a development”. Kafir moves from being one description of Muhammad’s opponents to the primary one.
Later in the Quran, kahn becomes more and more connected with shirk.
The status of the People of the Book ahl al-kitabparticularly Jews and Christians, with respect to the Islamic notions of unbelief is not clearcut. Charles Adams writes that the Quran reproaches the People of the Book with kufr for rejecting Muhammad’s message when they should have been the first to accept it as possessors of earlier revelations, and singles out Christians for disregarding the evidence of God’s unity. God is the third of three”among other verses, has been traditionally understood in Islam as rejection of the Christian Trinity doctrine though modern scholarship has suggested alternative interpretations.
Cyril Glasse criticizes the use of kafirun [pl. Historically, People of the Book permanently residing under Islamic rule were entitled to a special status known as dhimmiwhile those visiting Muslim lands received a different status known as musta’min. Accusations of shirk have been common in religious polemics within Islam. In classical jurisprudence, Islamic religious tolerance applied only to the People of the Book, while mushrikunbased on the Sword Versefaced a choice between conversion to Islam and fight to the death,  which may be substituted by enslavement.
Whether a Muslim could commit a sin great enough to become a kafir was disputed by jurists in the early centuries of Islam. The most tolerant view that of the Murdji’a was that even those who had committed a major sin kabira were still believers and “their fate was left to God”.
In between these two positions, the Mu’tazila believed that there was a status between believer and unbeliever called “rejected” or fasiq. The Kharijites view that the self-proclaimed Muslim who had sinned and “failed to repent had ipso facto excluded himself from the community, and was hence a kafir” a practice known as takfir was considered so extreme by the Sunni majority that they in turn declared the Kharijites kafir following the hadith that declared, “If a Muslim charges a fellow Muslim with kufrhe is himself a kafir if the accusation should prove untrue”.
Nevertheless, in Islamic theological iafir kafir was “a frequent term for the Muslim protagonist” akun the opposite view, according to Brill’s Islamic Encyclopedia.
Another group that are “distinguished from the mass of kafirun”  are the murtador apostate ex-Muslims, who are considered renegades and traitors, the concept of freedom of religion not being accepted. Non-Muslims living under the protection of an Islamic state. According to the Salafi scholar Muhammad Taqi-ud-Din al-Hilali” kufr is basically disbelief in any of the articles of faith. He also lists several different types of major disbelief, disbelief so severe it excludes those who practice it completely from the katir of Islam:.
,aun to another source, a paraphrase of the Tafsir by Ibn Kathir [ unreliable source? In Islam, jahiliyyah “ignorance” refers to the time of Arabia before Islam. It may also refer to modern secularist states. When the Islamic empire expanded, the word ” kafir ” was used broadly for all pagans and anyone who disbelieved in Islam. However, there was extensive religious violence in India between Muslims and non-Muslims during the Delhi Sultanate and Mughal Empire before the political decline of Islam.
Relations between Jews and Muslims in the Arab world and use of the word “kafir” were equally as complex, and over the last century, kafid regarding “kafir” have arisen over the conflict in Israel and Palestine. Kan hadith in which Muhammad states that his father was in hell has become a source of disagreement about the status of Muhammad’s parents.
Over the centuries, Sunni scholars have dismissed this hadith despite its appearance in the authoritative Sahih Muslim collection. It passed through a single chain of transmission for three generations, so that its authenticity was not considered certain enough to supersede a theological consensus which stated that people who died before a prophetic message reached them—as Kaafir father had done—could not be held accountable for not embracing it.
By the 15th century, the word Kaffir was used by Muslims in Africa to refer to the non-Muslim African natives.
ALLAMA IRFAN HAIDER ABIDI REHAISHGAH SHAHEED MOHSIN NAQVI KAFIR KAUN – video dailymotion
Many of those kufari were enslaved and sold by their Muslims captors to European and Asian merchants, mainly from Portugal, who by that time had established trading outposts along the coast of West Africa. These European traders adopted that Arabic word and its derivatives. The word is also used in reference to the coast of Africa as land of Cafraria.
He identified their geographical heartland as being located in remote southern Africa, an area which he designated as Cafraria. By the late 19th century the word was in use in English-language newspapers and books.
Thus, in many parts of South Africa, ” kafir ” became synonymous with the word, “native”. The song “Kafir” by American technical death metal band Nile from their sixth album Those Whom the Gods Detest uses as subject matter the violent attitudes that Muslim extremists have toward Kafirs. The Nuristani people were formally known as Kaffirs of Kafiristan before the Afghan Islamization of the region. Moreover, their native name was Kapir, due to the lack of a “P” in Arabic, they coincidentally were called Kafirs, which was incorrect but again correct since they were polytheistsmoreover Henotheists.
Quran ki rou sae kafir by Allama Irfan Haider Abidi
The Kalash people located in the Hindu Kush mountain range south west kafur Chitral are known as Kafirs by the Muslim akfir of Chitral. In modern Spanish, the word cafrederived from the Arabic kafir by way of Portuguese, also means “uncouth” or “savage”. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Not to be confused with kefir. For other uses, see kaffir. For the village in Iran, see Kafr, Iran. Reconstruction of Religious Thought in Islam Iqbal s. Principles of State and Government Asad Ma’alim fi al-Tariq “Milestones” Qutb Governance of the Jurist “Velayat-e faqih” Khomeini Islam and other religions.
Modern scholars have also interpreted it as a reference to Jesus, who was often called “the third of three” in Syriac literature and as an intentional over-simplification of Christian doctrine intended to highlight its weakness from a strictly monotheistic perspective. Retrieved 27 August The New Encyclopedia of Islam Revised ed. Retrieved 3 January Laliwala Islamic Philosophy of Religion: With Or Against the Bible?
Ekwo Racism and Terrorism: Retrieved 11 June Archived from the original on A medieval critique of Anthropomorphism. Retrieved 27 July Mythology among the Hebrews. The Trail of Political Islam. Retrieved 26 September Quran Sunnah Educational Programs.
Retrieved 16 June In Jane Dammen McAuliffe. The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World. Brill’s First Encyclopaedia of Islam, —, Volume 4. Retrieved 29 June Journal of the American Oriental Society. Encyclopaedia of Islam 2nd ed.
Kafir – Wikipedia
Cambridge University Press Kindle edition. A History of Islamic Societies. Tolerance may in no circumstances be extended to the apostate, the renegade Muslim, whose punishment is death. Some authorities allow the remission of this punishment if the apostate recants.
Others insist on the death penalty even then. God may pardon him the world to come; the law must punish him in this world. Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second EditionEdited by: Retrieved 17 June The Holy Quran Translation. Economic and Political Weekly. Perspectives on Indian History Editor: Hizb al-Tahrir and al-Muhajiroun on Israel and the Jews”.
Oneworld Publications Kindle edition. In the Presence of God. Are the parents of the Prophet peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him in Kafi or in Hell? The History and Description of Africa.