La rebelión de Kronstadt by Alexander Berkman, , available at Book Depository with free delivery worldwide. LA MALATESTA, Rústica. Book Condition: Nuevo. Dust Jacket Condition: Nuevo. La rebelión de Kronstadt de representa un antes y un después . Soldiers of the Red Army attack the island fortress of Kronstadt on the ice of the Gulf of Finland. Rebelión de Kronstadt Revolució Russa · Rebel·lió de Kronstadt · Història de la Unió Soviètica i la Rússia Usage on

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Soviet Baltic Fleet sailors.

The Kronstadt rebellion Russian: Kronshtadtskoye vosstaniye was a major unsuccessful uprising against the Bolsheviks in Marchduring the later years of the Russian Civil War. Led by Stepan Petrichenko [1] and consisting of Russian sailors, soldiers, and civilians, the rebellion was rebslion of the reasons for Vladimir Lenin ‘s and the Communist Party’s decision to loosen its control of the Russian economy by implementing the New Economic Policy NEP.

The rebellion was crushed by the Red Army after a day military campaign, resulting in several thousand deaths. According to Lenin, the crisis was the most critical the regime had yet faced, “undoubtedly more dangerous than DenikinYudenichand Kolchak combined. Bythe Bolsheviks were winning the Russian Civil War and foreign troops were beginning to withdraw, yet Bolshevik leaders continued to keep tight control of the economy through the policy of War Communism.

It is estimated that the total output of mines and factories in was 20 percent of the pre-World War I level, with many crucial items suffering an even more drastic decline. Production of cotton, for example, had fallen to 5 percent and iron to 2 percent of the pre-war level, and this coincided with droughts in and and the Russian famine of They resisted by refusing to till their land.

In Februarymore than peasant uprisings took place. The workers in Petrograd were also involved in a series of kronstaadt, caused by the reduction of bread kronstat by one third konstadt a ten-day period. On Gebelion 26, delegates from the Kronstadt naval base visited Petrograd to investigate the situation.

On February 28, in kronsradt to the delegates’ report of heavy-handed Bolshevik repression of strikes in Petrograd, the crews of the battleships Petropavlovsk kgonstadt Sevastopol held an emergency meeting, which approved a resolution raising 15 demands. On March 1, a general meeting of the garrison was held, attended also by Mikhail Kalinin and Commissar of the Soviet Baltic Fleet Nikolai Kuzminwho made speeches for the Government, threatening harsh repression if the requests were not withdrawn.

The general meeting passed a resolution including the fifteen demands given above. On March 2, a conference of sailor, soldier and worker organization delegates, after hearing speeches by Kuzmin and Vasiliev, President of the Kronstadt Executive Committee, arrested these two and approved the formation of a Provisional Revolutionary Committee.

The Government responded with an ultimatum the same day, which insinuated that the revolt had “undoubtedly been prepared by French counter-intelligence” and that the Petropavlovsk resolution was an “SR-Black Hundred” resolution.

SR stood for Social Revolutionariesa socialist party whose right wing had refused to support the Bolsheviks. The Black Hundreds were an ultranationalist paramilitary organization in late Tsarist Russia, whose members had opposed any retreat from Tsarist autocracy. After the October Revolution, “Black Hundreds” became a term of abuse for real and imagined anti-communists.

The Bolshevik government began its attack on Kronstadt on March 7. On March 17, Bolshevik forces entered the city of Kronstadt after having suffered over 10, fatalities. The day after the surrender of Kronstadt, the Bolsheviks celebrated the kfonstadt anniversary of kronsyadt Paris Commune.


Although there are no reliable figures for rebel battle losses, historians estimate that from 1,—2, persons were executed after the revolt and a similar number were jailed, many in the Solovki prison camp.

More fortunate rebels were those who escaped to Finlandtheir large number causing the first big refugee problem for the newly independent state. The Soviet government later provided the refugees in Finland with amnesty; among those was Petrichenko, who lived in Finland and worked as a spy for the Soviet Gosudarstvennoye Politicheskoye Kronstsdt GPU.

Some months after his return, he was arrested on espionage charges and sentenced to ten years in prison, and died at Vladimir prison in Although Red Army units suppressed the uprising, dissatisfaction with al state of affairs could not have been more forcefully expressed. Vladimir Lenin stated that Kronstadt ls up reality like a lightning flash”. Against this background of discontent, Lenin concluded that world revolution was not imminent; in the spring of he replaced War Communism with his New Economic Policy.

Claims that the Kronstadt uprising was instigated by foreign and counter-revolutionary forces extended beyond the March 2 government ultimatum. The anarchist Emma Goldmanwho was in Petrograd at the time of the rebellion, described in a retrospective account from how “the news in the Paris Press about the Kronstadt uprising two weeks before it happened had been stressed in the [official press] campaign against the sailors as proof positive that they had been tools of the Imperialist gang and that rebellion had actually been hatched in Paris.

It was too obvious that this yarn was used only to discredit the Kronstadters in the eyes of the workers. Avrich says this memorandum was probably written between January and early February by an agent of an exile opposition group called the National Centre in Finland.

Those debates started at the time of the rebellion. Because Leon Trotsky was in charge of the Red Army forces that suppressed the uprising, with the backing of Lenin, the question of whether the suppression was justified became a point of contention on the revolutionary left, in debates between anarchists and Leninist Marxists about the character of the Soviet state and Leninist politics, and more particularly in debates between anarchists and Trotsky and his followers.

It remains so to this day. On the pro-Leninist side of those debates, the memorandum published by Avrich is treated as a “smoking gun” showing foreign and counter-revolutionary conspiracy behind the rebellion, for example in an article from by a Trotskyist writer, Abbie Bakan.

Bakan says “[t]he document includes remarkably detailed information about the resources, personnel, arms and plans of the Kronstadt rebellion.

La rebelión de Kronstadt : Alexander Berkman :

It also details plans regarding White army and French government support for the Kronstadt sailors’ March rebellion. Bakan says the National Centre originated in as a self-described “underground organization formed in Russia for the struggle against the Bolsheviks. Avrich reaches a different conclusion as to the meaning of the “Memorandum”:.

Moreover, whether the Memorandum played a kfonstadt in the revolt can be seen from the reactions of the White “National Centre” to the uprising. Firstly, they failed to deliver aid to the rebels or to get French aid to them. Secondly, Professor Grimm, the chief agent of the National Centre in Helsingfors and General Wrangel’s kronstadr representative in Finland, stated to a colleague after the revolt had been crushed that if a new outbreak should occur then their group must not be caught unaware again.


Avrich also notes that the revolt “caught the emigres off balance” and that “nothing A bibliography by rbelion historian of the Russian Civil War characterizes Avrich’s history as “the only full-length, scholarly, non-partisan account of the genesis, course and repression of the rebellion to have appeared in English.

First, Krivitsky asked, “Is the Soviet Government a rebelino government?

From Kronstadt during the Bolshevik Revolution inthe sailors of the Baltic Fleet had steamed their cruisers to aid the Communists in capturing Petrograd. Their aid had been decisive They were the first Communists to realize their mistake and the first to try to correct it. When they saw that Communism meant terror and tyranny, they called for the overthrow of the Communist Government and for a time imperiled it.

La rebelión de Kronstadt

Kronstadtt were bloodily destroyed or sent into Siberian slavery by Communist troops led in person by the Commissar of War, Leon Trotsky, and by Marshal Rebellon, one of whom was later assassinated, the other executed, by the regime they then saved. Krivitsky meant that by the decision to destroy the Kronstadt sailors, and by its cold-blooded action in doing so, Communism had made the choice that changed it from benevolent socialism to malignant fascism.

The book The God That Failed contains Louis Fischer ‘s definition of “Kronstadt” as the moment in which communists or fellow travelers decide not just to leave the Communist Party but to oppose it as anti-communists. Editor Richard Crossman said in the book’s introduction: After describing the actual Kronstadt rebellion, Fischer spent many pages applying the concept to subsequent former-communists—including himself: Until its advent, one might waver emotionally or doubt intellectually or even kronztadt the cause altogether in one’s mind, and yet refuse to attack it.

Stepán Maxímovich Petrichenko – Wikipedia, la enciclopedia libre

I had no ‘Kronstadt’ for many years. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about rebellion of Russian sailors against the Bolshevik government in For the rebellions of Russian sailors in andsee Kronstadt mutinies. For the punk band, see Kronstadt Uprising band. Theaters of the Russian Civil War. Guttridge 1 August A History of Naval Insurrection. Lenin and the Russian Revolution.

The Russians in the Soviet Union. The Spirit Of Change: Russia in Revolution Archived from the original on A Translation and Discussion of the Authors”.

Archived from the original on 10 January Retrieved 6 May The Russian Revolution New York: Viking Press Kronshtadtskii miatezh v g. The Russian Revolution and Civil War lq The Early Years of the Russian Revolution. Archived at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved from ” https: Webarchive template wayback links CS1 kronsttadt Views Read Edit View history. In other projects Wikimedia Commons.

This page was last ,a on 14 Decemberat By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Kronstavt Policy.

Part of the left-wing uprisings against the Bolsheviks and the Russian Civil War. Red Army troops attack Kronstadt. Date March 7—17, Soviet Baltic Fleet sailors Armed citizens of Kronstadt. Mikhail Tukhachevsky Leon Trotsky. Part of the Politics series on. Anarchism portal Politics portal.