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The invention presented is part of the optical and mechanical precision industry instrumentationoriented emission and reception of light beams efficiently. Optical systems consisting of lenses, mirrors and other elements characteristic for manipulating light such as the beam splitters, polarizers, prisms, filters, etc.
They have been used widely in the field of optics for the development of systems that alter the position, direction, phase, energy distribution and polarization state of light. Optical systems transmit and receive beams modulated laser based optical elements are differentiated using to transmit and receive information.
However, using some of the above elements and the properties of light, it is possible to simplify this philosophy and use some of the same elements for both functions taking, although different optical paths, the same optical axis. This solution simplifies both the problem of alignment between distant to remove adjusting elements transceivers. Light considered electromagnetic wave is characterized by four basic properties: The polarization state corresponding to the specifications of the transverse wave that characterizes it.
According to the electromagnetic theory, the two perpendicular electric field vector components and their contribution may lead to linear polarized light, circular or elliptical.
When polarized light is linear, its energy is concentrated and propagating in a plane that spatially following the direction of propagation. Multiplexing or multichanneling signal is well known in the field of signal theory. Thus, two or convergentd signals can be transmitted through a single communication channel if done in time, in frequency or different phases. Considering light as a communication channel as electromagnetic wave in the strict sense, we can also consider its polarization state as a property that allows us multicanalizar electromagnetic or light signals if their energies are at different polarization planes.
In this case, it is a differentiation signal by spatial energy distribution. We define optical duplexer as one optical system that allows a bidirectional coupling between two light beams that carry modulated information. Los haces luminosos transmitido y recibido no se interfieren porque difieren en alguna propiedad que caracteriza a la luz que procesa: The light beams transmitted and received not interfere because they differ in some property that characterizes light processing space, time, frequency, phase or polarization state.
In this invention an optical duplexer system characterized by processing two laser beams linearly polarized in two perpendicular planes that propagate bidirectionally over a single optical axis occurs. Furthermore, the light generated by a solid state laser has generally a polarized nature. Depending on the geometry and mode of operation of the laser, the emitted polarized light may have different manifestations.
To ensure that a laser beam possesses a specific type of polarization, it is necessary to process the light produced by a polarizer. Polarizing optical elements are, from an unpolarized light produce linearly polarized light or circular.
They are based either on birefringent properties possessed by some crystals such as quartz, the properties of some thick or thin surfaces surface layers that reflect and refract the orthogonal components of the vector field with provisions of metal meniaco in materials that absorb a component and transmit the other absorption polarizers. In the present invention a polarizer cube having the property of decomposing an arbitrary polarization light, linearly polarized in two perpendicular components S reflected and P refracted is used.
Energetically speaking, the irradiance or the energy of the incident beam except a loss factor, is divided between the two components S and P. Linearly polarized light, impinging on certain substances can deflect the angle of the polarization plane. Cpnvergente scattering phenomenon is due to the interaction of photons with the molecular structure of the convefgente surfaces, or of individual molecules gas.
The wavelength of the photon striking is a determining process parameter. In the present invention it matters evolution angle of the polarization plane of a laser beam when it convergnete through the air. Atmospheric air is formed by a mixture of gases and suspended particles which may interact with a laser beam generating polarized scattering phenomena, and movement polarization plane.
Therefore, in the system presented duplexer optical, beam splitters and sensors to analyze the deviation of the polarization plane in order to determine the influence of the components of the atmosphere on the beam itself are included.
It is also known that the laser beams are characterized by a large diredividad, consistency and irradiance. Depending on the mode of vibration convergenfe the laser, generally, the irradiance follows a statistical distribution type meniaco quasi-Gaussian concergente single mode lasers and in type ‘Gauss-Laguerre’ multimode lasers petals annular distribution. La coherencia del haz nos delimita su capacidad dispersiva. Coherence beam defines us their dispersive capacity. Thus, the divergence angle in radians and a laser beam depends on the opening D and wave length of JI.
This angle defines a cone frustum in which the beam diverges. Likewise, the opening of the optical system processing the laser is conditioned by the existence of diffraction. This is the farfield diffraction or Fraunhofer that starts to occur at distances depending on the diameter D of the opening and length of wave JI. Thus, the zero of the first ring height h occurs approximately at a distance d from: From the point of view of the light energy processed by an optical system, its design should take into account the specific energy distribution of light processing and balancing energy losses occurring in the entire optical system.
The energy efficiency of the optical system is measured by comparing the energy used against processed, both the transmitted and the received. The invention disclosed uses a catadioptric reflector characterized by small size lebte low cost but with great focal distance required to have a small field of view without disturbance of other optical phenomena environment. All reflectors make use of lenses and mirrors combined allowing light impinging on processing openings with circular crown shape.
They have a central shadow area due to the arrangement of the secondary mirror.
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Thus, if we use a catadioptric reflector for transmitting and receiving light energy efficiently by laser energy or irradiance distribution thereof must be circular or annular shaped crown. The light beams splitters based prisms or semitransparent polarizing or non-polarizing sheets have been used in the field of optics for decades. Polarized light is used regularly in spectroscopy and polarized electromagnetic waves modulated transmission signals or satellite TV. The optical fiber transmission in free space or polarized light is rarely used because the applications and existing methods not requiring this possibility.
At the time we set transmit and receive modulated light signals simultaneously by a single optical axis, it is when you can consider using polarized light because it allows redirection in different ways. No hay que alinear dos haces el transmitido y el recibidosino, aparentemente, uno solo ya que los dos viajan por el mismo eje.
We save and bend the optical system one for transmission and one for receptionwhile simplifying the mechanical alignment process: No need to align two beams the transmitted and receivedbut apparently one since the two travel along the same axis. Thus, this invention solves the technical problem of the use of two different optical systems replacing a single optical system thus providing advantages for cost reduction of the lens used, for simplification of mechanical alignment and for increased efficiency in capturing beams.
In this invention an apparatus for optical duplexer transmission and reception laser beam with linearly polarized annular irradiance in two perpendicular planes that propagate bidirectionally over a single optical axis occurs. The object of the invention is to optimize the light energy transmitidarecibida and simplification of the mechanical structure of the optical system in guidance appliances, while simplifying the alignment procedure.
The apparatus comprises a catadioptric reflector that transmits and receives beams polarized laser are directed, according to its direction and polarization state, to the outside the transmitted beamor the inner beam received by a cube polarizer beam splittermirrors and lenses. The laser beam transmitted, guided by a mirror, is passed through a beam splitter cube that allows polarizing beam splitting in the two polarized beams perpendicular linearly.
If the laser is total polarized or partially, it must be oriented so that the cube reflects the maximum component S.
The component lene is adapted by a diverging lens to adapt the beam to the focal plane of the reflector so that it transmits all the energy with minimal losses. The energy distribution of the laser beam which minimizes the energy transmitted should be annular feature.
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The transmitted linearly polarized laser is in a well defined plane. The laser beam received comes from a duplexer homologue also sends a linearly polarized but in a perpendicular laser beam transmitted beam plane. It crosses the same catadioptric reflector and is adapted by the same diverging lens through the same polarizer cube that identifies a refracted P ‘component.
The refracted component receivedfollows a different optical path the reflected S transmitted through a mirror guiding and affecting the optical receiver system. The laser beam transmitted is generated by a solid state laser with an annular irradiance is thermally controlled and modulated by the electronic circuitry of a transmitter. The laser is collimated by an aspheric lens before being directed into the polarizer cube.
The laser beam received is processed by a consistent optical system of a converging lens which projects the beam onto a hemispherical lens is attached to an optical polymer fiber which leads the light energy into an avalanche photodiode likewise thermally controlled and amplified with highly sensitive electronic circuits.
The laser beam received, but has mostly a refracted component P ‘, when traveling through the free space has collided with molecules and particles in suspension, dispersion, have slightly altered polarization plane received. Thus, they received two components, a high intensity P ‘and a lower intensity S’ actually. Portions collected by the two photodiodes contain information about the intensity and the deviation of the polarization plane.
Estas se corresponden con las componentes del vector campo ortogonales del haz recibido. These correspond to the orthogonal components of the vector field of the received beam. If we call p ‘s’ to the irradiance received components, we can calculate the module 1: We are comparing the module I with irradiance transmitted origin we can estimate the density of elements existing atmospheric dispersion. El argumento a nos proporciona el tipo de elemento dispersor.
The argument gives us the type of dispersive element. These amounts are dependent on time and a direct function of atmospheric state CO2 densities, water vapor H20, organic particles in suspension pollens, organelles and inorganic carbon, silicaetc. It evaluated this dispersion may act to compensate by increasing the power of the transmitted beam or the receiver sensitivity. While it may have information about the dispersing elements of the atmosphere that may be used to evaluate the characteristics of the air and its elements in a particular weather.
It then goes on to describe very briefly a series of drawings which aid in better understanding the invention and which are expressly related to an embodiment convergnte said invention presented as a non-limiting example thereof.
Figures 1A, 1 and 18 show different views of the optical duplexer apparatus of the present invention. Figures 3A and 38 represent the duplexer device lennte two views of the arrangement of optical components for splitting the beam transmitted and received.
Figure 4 shows a section of the optical duplexer apparatus showing the elements and parts of the catadioptric reflector transceiver and the three optical axes. La Figura 7A y 78 muestran el mecanismo de enfoque de la lente divergente del duplexor y el soporte ajustable de los espejos de primera superficie y cubo polarizador.
La Figura 9 muestra una vista seccionada de los soportes de los partidores de haz con los fotodiodos sensores.
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Figure 9 shows a sectional view of the supports of the beam splitters with photodiode sensors view. In this invention an optical duplexer device characterized converrgente processing two laser beams linearly polarized in two perpendicular planes that propagate bidirectionally over a single optical axis occurs. The apparatus duplexer optical 1 shown in different views in Figures 1A, 18 and 1C, is comprised of a reflector tube catadioptric 5 attached to a box or housing 6 rectangular containing the optical and mechanical elements for a laser transmitter 51, a receiver 52, both with thermoregulation ‘and an atmospheric analyzer 54 as shown in Figures 2A and Laser beams transmitted and received two 2 ‘leave and enter the catadioptric reflector tube 5 through the window 4 of a crown with a central circle opaque 3.
At the bottom of the housing 6 screw 7 that adjusts the position is primary mirror reflector 5. All metal structure is constructed of aluminum: The housing 6 also is covered internally by absorbent felt.
Figures 3A and 38 show the elements of the optical system included within the case 6. The catadioptric reflector tube 5 is screwed to a support 8 on which is attached a perpendicular base 9 accommodating the optical system of the transmitter 10 and receiver 10 ‘, two mirrors of first surface 11 and 11’ respectively directing the transmitted beam and received a beam splitter optical system which comprises a first sensor 12 and a second 12 ‘beam splitter analyzing beam received- a polarizer beam splitter cube 13 divides the beams transmitted and received, and finally, an optical system of catadioptric reflector adaptation based on a diverging lens The first surface mirrors ‘are special mirror that generate a single reflection, while normal mirrors make two: These mirrors have only a espejante aluminum surface made by vapor deposition.
Figure 4 shows a section of tube catadioptric reflector covering a plane containing the three optical axes 24, 25, 26 by presenting the beams transmitted and received.
The catadioptric reflector 5 and elements constitute Maksutov-Cassegrain telescope type.