LESION AXONAL DIFUSA CLASIFICACION PDF

Este es el caso de las imágenes focales o difusas que afectan a la sustancia blanca (SB) .. Clasificación de lesiones en la sustancia blanca según localización gliosis, pérdida de mielina, rarefación axonal > destrucción completa del axón. Grading of diffuse axonal injury has been described histologically according to the anatomic distribution of injury, which correlated with outcome However, it has low sensitivity in the identification of diffuse axonal injury and posterior fossa lesions. Cranial MR is a potentially more sensitive test but difficult to.

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Magnetic resonance imaging of sella turcica: Santos, Alair Augusto Sarmet M.

Servico de Radiologia Santa Cruz Scan. We have selected cases of patients who have done magnetic resonance imaging of sella region, carried out from September, to August,who had galactorrhea Gamenorrhea Aand hyperprolactinemia Hisolated or in association. The patients were divided in seven groups, according to the presence of these symptoms and signs.

All examinations were made in a private clinic in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Correlating these patients with the results of the magnetic resonance images, we found 57 micro adenomas, 31 normal examinations, 22 macro adenomas, 11 pituitary hyperplasias, 7 empty sella and 7 cases included in other aspects.

In macro adenomas, a bright signal on T 1-weighted images indicates pituitary apoplexy with intratumoral hemorrhage. All in all, the magnetic resonance imaging is excellent method to be used in the evaluation of patients with changes in the hypothalamic-pituitary axis.

Directory of Open Access Journals Sweden. Full Text Available Prolactin provides the growth of the mammary gland during pregnancy and synthesis and preparation of breast milk for lactation. Antipsychotics and antidepressants that are frequently used in psychiatry, cause hyperprolactinemia. The prevalent opinion is that especially typical antipsychotics increase prolactin levels primarily by blocking D2 receptors in the anterior pituitary.

Traumatismo Craneoencefálico basado en la evidencia

The effects of atypical antipsychotics on hyperprolactinemia vary. Hyperprolactinemia causes galactorrhea, gynecomastia, sexual dysfunction, infertility, acne, hirsutism in women, weight gain, obesity and mood changes in addition to menstrual irregularities such as oligomenorrhea, polymenorrhea and amenorrhea.

In the long term, hyperprolactinemia may cause reduction in bone density and osteoporosis. Hyperprolactinemia as a side effect of antipsychotics drugs and its treatment will be reviewed in this article. Metabolic syndrome in hyperprolactinemia. The metabolic syndrome MetS is a conglomerate of clinical findings that convey into increased morbidity and mortality from type 2 diabetes mellitus T2D and cardiovascular disease.

HyperPRL is a biomarker for decreased dopaminergic tonus in the hypothalamic-pituitary circuit.

Recent studies supported that PRL leeion within or above reference range may be axpnal related to MetS. Ongoing research on PRL fragments Diagnosis and management of clasificacoin. Hyperprolactinemia is a common condition that can result from a number of causes, including medication use and hypothyroidism as well as pituitary disorders.

Depending on the cause and consequences of the hyperprolactinemiaselected patients require treatment. The underlying cause, sex, age and reproductive status must be considered. We describe the diagnostic approach and management of hyperpr Emotional aspects of hyperprolactinemia. Patients with hyperprolactinemia often present with emotional difficulties. These occasionally persist even after successful treatment. Insight into the roots of their diseased state makes a difference in the handling of all cases, but becomes crucial in the not-so-rare situations in which the normalization of hormonal levels is not followed by a feeling of cure.

This chapter attempts to provide details, discuss and situate in context the following blocks of pertinent information: Whether adaptive, as in the case of surrogate maternity, or pathological, as in the clasificacjon of pseudopregnancy, prolactin responds to a perceived need to take care of a child; 4 the facts that the clinical onset of prolactinomas often follows life-events and that these tumors occur preferentially in women brought up under specific conditions suggest the possibility that psychological factors may predispose dkfusa prolactinomas; 5 dealing with individual cases requires the perception difuwa the relations between prolactin, emotions and feelings are circular, i.

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The basic data on hyperprolactinemia i. The following issues are discussed: It should be stressed that finding of elevated PRL serum concentrations constitute the beginning of diagnostic procedure asonal, after exclusion of physiologic, pharmacologic, and other organic causes of increased PRL levels, should be followed by detailed diagnosis including MRI.

In patients in whom hyperprolactinemia has been confirmed the treatment with dopamine agonists with prevalence of cabergoline, followed by quinagoline is currently considered first-choice therapy. Surgery should be performed only in the patients resistant or intolerant to these agents, or in patients who refuse long-term therapy.

Hyperprolactinemia and male reproductive functions.

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For in men with a comparison an In. Hyperprolactinemia in Children with Subclinical Hypothyroidism. Prevalence of hyperprolactinemia in children with subclinical hypothyroidism ScH is not known. This study aimed to determine the occurrence and predictors of hyperprolactinemia in euthyroid children and in children with ScH and overt primary hypothyroidism OPH.

Serum prolactin levels were estimated in consecutive children hypothyroidism, multiple pituitary hormone deficiency, comorbid states, and drug-induced hyperprolactinemia were excluded. From the initially screened children, hormonal data from children who fulfilled all criteria were analyzed.

TRAUMA CRANEOENCEFALICO by Marielos Rodas on Prezi

Occurrence of hyperprolactinemia was highest in the OPH group More studies are needed to establish if hyperprolactinemia should clasificacioh an indication for treating ScH in children. Magnetic resonance imaging evaluation of traumatic muscle injuries; Avaliacao por ressonancia magnetica das injurias musculares traumaticas.

We evaluated 43 magnetic resonance scans of the leg or thigh of patients suffering from sports trauma. Strains were the most frequent lesions observed. These lesions presented iso- or hypointense signal on T1 and hyperintense signal on T2 images, fifusa were classified according to the intensity of the injury of the fibers into grades 1, 2 and 3.

The second most common lesions in these series were contusions that appeared iso- or hypointense on T1 and hyperintense on T2 images.

Fibrosis was also observed as low signal lesions on T1 and T2 images. Magnetic resonance imaging in schizophrenia: Instituto do Coracao InCor. Secao de Ressonancia Magnetica].

Thirty-three patients with chronic schizophrenia and lwsion normal subjects were submitted to magnetic resonance imaging studies using a 1. Axial and coronal T 2-weighted images were obtained. The volumes of the brain, intracranial, supratentorial, infratentorial and the total, ventricular and subarachnoid cerebrospinal fluid volumes were measured using semi-automated morphometric methods.

The volumes of the amygdala-hippocampus complex, para hippocampal gyrus cortex, putamen, globus pallidus, temporal lobe, gray and white matter of temporal lobe were also measured.

These volumes were normalized using the intracranial volume as reference. The most relevant findings observed were reduced brain volume and increased total, ventricular and subarachnoid cerebrospinal fluid volumes in patients with schizophrenia when compared to the controls. Patients with schizophrenia had also smaller amygdala-hippocampus complexes, temporal lobes and temporal lobe white matter than the controls, as well as increased putamen volumes.

Meniscal configuration using magnetic resonance imaging; Dufusa meniscal pela ressonancia magnetica. Fernandes, Arthur da Rocha C. The authors present a review of the normal meniscal configuration and correlation with anatomic specimens. The images were obtained by magnetic resonance imaging.

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Veterinaria

lesiom The authors emphasize the importance of knowing the relationship between the meniscus and the adjacent anatomic structures. Characterization of functional polymers by NMR; Caracterizacao de polimeros funcionalizados por ressonancia magnetica nuclear.

Several synthetic polymers are used in the chemical analysis of complexes mixtures aiming to extract certain specific functional groups for further identification. This lesikn describes the utilization of NMR in the characterization of one of the above mentioned compounds which will be used as reagent for the synthesis of another compound of the same type, which will be further used in the chemical analysis of alcohols and phenols.

The methodology is described. The results are described and discussed 4 refs. Nuclear magnetic resonance of randomly diluted magnetic materials; Ressonancia nuclear magnetica em materiais magneticos diluidos aleatoriamente.

Solid state NMR as well as several other instrumental chemical analysis techniques were used in order to sxonal two natural occurring bentonite. The Axinal spectra, together with the other used techniques suggest that the observed differences are due to iron inclusions in tetrahedral and octahedral sites 5 refs. Magnetic resonance imaging of cerebellar Schistosomiasis mansoni; Ressonancia magnetica na esquistossomose mansoni cerebelar. Servico de Doencas Infecciosas e Parasitarias.

A year-old boy was admitted to hospital with a history of headache, dizziness, vomiting and double vision that started two weeks before. His parents denied any previous disease. During clinical examination he presented diplopia on lateral gaze to the left and horizontal nystagmus. No major neurological dysfunction was detected. He was well built, mentally responsive and perceptive.

The magnetic resonance images MRI of the brain showed a left cerebellar lesion with mass effect compressing the surrounding tissues. Contrast-enhanced images showed a mass like structure and punctate nodules Figures A and B: The lesion extended to the vermis and brachium pons and compressed the medulla.

There was no hydrocephalus. He was taken to the operating room with the presumptive diagnosis of a neuroglial tumor, and submitted to a lateral suboccipital craniectomy. A brown, brittle tumoral mass without a clearly defined margin with the cerebellar tissue was removed. Microscopic examination revealed schistosomal granulomas in the productive phase in the cerebellum Figure C. Thirty days later he was seen again at the outpatient clinic: This is the eighth case of cerebellar involvement in schistosomiasis mansoni and the second report of a tumoral form of cerebellar schistosomiasis documented by magnetic resonance images.

Magnetic resonance imaging of pelvic lesioh Ressonancia magnetica em endometriose pelvica. Twenty-five magnetic resonance imaging MRI studies were performed in 18 patients with proven endometriosis. MRI findings were analyzed and compared with laparoscopic or surgical findings; MRI accurately demonstrated ovarian endometrial cysts as well as ectopic foci of endometriosis.

Wxonal may be also suggested. Contrary to laparoscopy, MRI clasificacon depicts both deep lesions and lesioh implants under the peritoneum. Consequently, MRI appears as an useful adjunct to laparoscopy for initial diagnosis before starting a medical treatment and above all as the imaging modality of choice for evaluation of the answer to treatment, avoiding iterative and axohal adhesions limited laparoscopies.

Magnetic resonance imaging in sudden deafness; Clasificxcion magnetica em surdez subita.