Manual de Umbrello UML Modeller. Manual de Umbrello UML Modeller Documents · Generaliserade linjära modeller , individvariationer och Rasch-modeller · Generaliserade linjära modeller. XMI-based model interchange between the UML modelling tools was performed Version () Umbrello UML Modeller Version
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Use Case Diagrams describe the relationships and dependencies between a group of Use Cases and the Actors participating in the process.
It is important to notice that Use Case Diagrams are not suited to represent the design, and cannot describe the internals of manusl system. Use Case Diagrams are meant to facilitate the communication with the future users of the system, and with the customer, and are specially helpful to determine the required features the system is to have. Use Case Diagrams tell, what the system should do but do not — and cannot — specify how this is to be achieved. A Use Case describes — from the point of view of the actors — a group of activities in a system that produces kml concrete, tangible result.
Use Cases are descriptions of umbrelloo typical interactions between the users of a system and the system itself. They represent the external interface of the system and specify a form of requirements of what the system has to do remember, only what, not how. Use Cases can also have relationships with other Use Cases. The three most typical types of relationships between Use Cases are:. An actor is an external entity outside of the system that interacts ,odeller the system by participating and often initiating a Use Case.
Actors can be in real life people for example users of the systemother computer systems or external hml. Actors do not represent the physical people or systems, but their role. This means that when a person interacts with the system in different ways assuming different roles he will be represented by several actors.
Use Case Descriptions are textual narratives of the Use Case. They usually take the form of a note or a document that is somehow linked to the Use Case, and explains the processes or activities that take place in the Use Case. Class Diagrams show the different classes that make up umml system and how they relate to each other. A Class defines the attributes and the methods of a set of objects.
All objects of this class instances of this class share the same behavior, and have the same set of attributes each object has its own set. In UMLAttributes are shown with at least their modellfr, and can also show their type, initial value and other properties.
Attributes can ump be displayed with their visibility:. Stands for protected attributes.
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Operations methods are also displayed with at least their name, and can also show their parameters and return types. Operations can, just as Attributes, display their visibility:. Stands for protected operations. Classes can have templates, a value which is used for an unspecified class or type. The template type is specified when a class is initiated i.
In UMLa Generalization association between two classes puts them in a hierarchy representing the concept of inheritance of a derived class from a base class. In UMLGeneralizations are represented by a line connecting the two classes, with an arrow on the side of the base class. Associations are the mechanism that allows objects to communicate to each other. It describes the connection between different classes the connection between the actual objects is called object connection, or link.
Associations can have a role that specifies the purpose of the association and can be uni- or bidirectional indicates if the two objects participating in the relationship can send messages to the other, of if only one of them knows about the other. Each end of the association also has a multiplicity value, which dictates how many objects on this side of the association can relate to one object on the other side. In UMLassociations are represented as lines connecting the classes participating in the relationship, and can also show the role and the multiplicity of each of the participants.
Multiplicity is displayed as a range [min. An Aggregation describes how the class that takes the role of the whole, is composed has of other classes, which take the role of the parts. For Aggregations, the class acting as the whole always has a multiplicity of one. In UMLAggregations are represented by an association that shows a rhomb on the side of the whole. Compositions are associations that represent very strong aggregations. This means, Compositions form whole-part relationships as well, but the relationship is so strong that the parts cannot exist on its own.
They exist only inside the whole, and if the whole is destroyed the parts die too.
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In UMLCompositions are represented by a solid rhomb on the side of the whole. Interfaces are abstract classes which means instances cannot be directly created of them. They can contain operations but no attributes. Classes can inherit from interfaces through a realisation association and instances can then be made of these diagrams.
Datatypes are primitives which are typically built into a programming language. Common examples include integers and booleans. They cannot have relationships to classes but classes can have relationships to them. Enums are a simple list of values. A typical example is an enum for mofeller of the week. The options of an enum are called Enum Literals. Like datatypes they cannot have relationships to classes but classes can have relationships to them.
Packages represent a namespace in a programming language.
In a diagram they are used to represent parts of a system which contain umhrello than one class, maybe hundereds of classes. Sequence Diagrams show the message exchange i. Objects are instances of classes. Sequence Diagrams put special emphasis in the order and the times in which the messages to the objects are sent.
In Sequence Diagrams objects are represented through vertical dashed lines, with the name of the Modellfr on the top. The time axis is also vertical, increasing downwards, so that messages are sent from one Object to another in the form of arrows with the operation and parameters name. Messages can be either synchronous, the normal type of message call where control is passed to the called object until that method has finished running, or asynchronous where control is passed back directly mxnual the calling object.
Synchronous messages have a vertical box on the side of the called object to show the flow of program control. Collaboration Diagrams show the interactions occurring between the objects participating in a specific situation. This is more or less the same information shown by Sequence Diagrams but there the emphasis is put on how the interactions occur in time while the Collaboration Modfller put the relationships between the objects and their topology in the umbrfllo.
In Collaboration Diagrams messages sent from one object to another are represented by arrows, showing the message name, parameters, and the sequence of the message.
Collaboration Diagrams are specially well suited to showing a specific program flow or situation and are one of the best diagram types to quickly demonstrate or explain one process in the program logic.
State Diagrams show the different states of an Object during its life and the stimuli that cause the Object to change its state. State Diagrams view Objects as state machines or finite automates that can be in one of a set of finite states and that can change its state via one of a finite set of stimuli. For example an Object of type NetServer can be in one of following states during its life:.
States are the building block of State Diagrams. A State belongs to exactly one class and represents a summary of the values the attributes of a class can take. A UML State describes the internal state of an object of one particular class. Note that not every change in one of the attributes of an object should be represented by a State but only those changes that can significantly affect the workings of the object.
There are two special types of States: They are special in that there is no event that can cause an Object to return to its Start state, in the same way as there is no event that can possible take an Object out of its End state once it has reached it.
Activity Diagrams describe the sequence of activities in a system with the help of Activities.
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Activity Diagrams are a special form of State Diagrams, that only or mostly contains Activities. Activity Diagrams are similar to procedural Flux Diagrams, with the difference that all Activities are clearly attached to Objects.
Activity Diagrams support sequential as well as parallel Activities. An Activity is a single step in a process. One Activity is one state in the system with internal activity and, at least, one outgoing transition. Activities can also have more than one outgoing transition if they have different conditions. There are a few elements in UML that have no real semantic value for the janual, but help to clarify parts of the diagram.
Text lines are useful to add short text information to a diagram. It is free-standing text and has no meaning to the Model itself. Notes are useful to add more detailed information about an object or a specific situation. Boxes are free-standing rectangles which can be used to group items together to make diagrams more readable.
They have no logical meaning in the model. Component Diagrams show the software components either component technologies such as KParts, CORBA components or Java Beans or just sections of the system which are clearly distinguishable and maual artifacts they are made out of such as source code files, programming libraries or relational database tables.
Yml can have interfaces i. Deployment diagrams show the runtime component instances and their associations. They include Nodes which are physical resources, typically a single computer. They also show interfaces and objects class instances.
Manuwl depict the various entities umbfello in the information system and the existing relationships and constraints between them. An Entity is any concept in the real world with an independent existence. It may be an object with a physical existence example, Computer, Robot or it may be an object with a conceptual existence eq: Each entity has a set of attributes which describe the properties of the Entity.
No standard notations exist manuxl depicting ER Diagrams. Different texts on this subject use different notations.
The concepts and notations for EER diagrams used in Umbrello are from the following book: Fundamentals of Database Systems 4th edn.